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A GLOSSARY OF FRENCH MEDICAL 
TERMS REFERABLE TO THE EYE. 



BY 
ELLEN KERNEY, A, M. 

(TRANSLATOR ON THE STAFF OF THE BIBLIOGRAPHIC 

DEPARTMENT IN THE LIBRARY OF THE NEW 

YORK ACADEMY OF MEDICINE) 



PUBLICATIONS OF THE 

INSTITUTE OF FRENCH STUDIES, INC. 

COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY 

NEW YORK 

1934 



Copyright, 1934, 
by Ellen Kerney 



Printed in the U. S. A. 



INTRODUCTION. 

This dictionary is based on a thesis entitled "An ety- 
mologic glossary of French medical terms referable to the 
eye", submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements 
for the degree of- Master of Arts in the Faculty of Philoso- 
phy, Columbia University, conferred on June 6, 1933. The 
only difference between this dictionary and the thesis is 
that here the etymology has been omitted. 

Let it be said first of all that this glossary does not 
pretend to be exhaustive. It represents merely an attempt 
to collect eye terms listed in standard works and new 
phrases employed in recent magazine articles. 

In citing the authority for the definition, the initial or 
the initials of the author or authors in question are placed 
at the end of the definition ; a complete list of such abbre- 
viations is given in the bibliography. 

With reference to the alphabetic arrangement, the only 
words disregarded are : s', se, le, la, les, un, and une ; thus 
"oeil de chat" follows "oeil colle" instead of preceding it. 
Cross references are given for all major words in a phrase 
and for the preposition "a", but not for "de". 

It is a pleasure to acknowledge my indebtedness to 
Professor Henri F. Muller, Executive Officer of the Depart- 
ment of Romance Languages, Columbia University, and to 
Doctor Webb W. Weeks, ophthalmologist of New York 
City. This thesis was compiled under the supervision of 
Professor Muller, who kindly supplied a great deal of lin- 
guistic information. Doctor Weeks consented to read and 
to criticise the thesis from the viewpoint of ophthalmology. 
I also wish to record the courtesy of the New York Academy 
of Medicine in lending me many books on the eye. 

The works consulted were as follows: 
A Institut de France. Dictionnaire de l'Academie 

franchise. 7. ed. 

Paris : Firmin-Didot. 1884. 
B Blum, J. 



Contribution a l'etude du syndrome oculo- 
moteur tardif de l'encephalite epidemique. 
Paris thesis number 46. 
Paris : Librairie Louis Arnette. 1928. 
CHK Cornil, L., Hennequin, and Kissel, P. 

Paralysie globale des nerfs moteurs de l'oeil 
(oeil de poupee) avec atteinte surajoutee des II e , 
V e , VII e et VIII e nerfs craniens droits par fracture 
isolee du 1/3 interne du rocher (considerations 
cliniques et pathogeniques). 

Paris medical, 20: (part 2) 135-138, 1930. 
HDT Hatzfeld, A., Darmesteter, A., and Thomas, A. 

Dictionnaire general de la langue francaise du 
commencement du XVII e siecle jusqu'a nos jours. 
8. ed. 

Paris : Delagrave. 1926. 
Lagrange, F. 

Precis d'ophtalmologie. 4. ed. 
Paris : Doin. 1921. 
Page 436: definition of "colmatage". 
L Littre, E. 

Dictionnaire de medecine, de chirurgie, de phar- 
macie, et des sciences qui s'y rapportent. 21. ed. 
Paris : Bailliere. 1908. 
Morax, V. 

Glaucome et glaucomateux. 
Paris: Doin. 1921. 

Page 91 : definition of "soudure de Knies". 
M Morax, V. 

Precis d'ophtalmologie. 3. ed. 
Paris: Masson. 1921. 
Pesme, P. 

Des effets tardifs du colmatage ou du calfeutrage 
sur Thypotonie oculaire. 
Archives d'ophtalmologie, 38: 591-596, 1921. 
RR1 Roger, H., and Reboul-Lachaux, J. 

Les spasmes des inferogyres dans Tencephalite 
epidemique. 

Revue d'oto-neuro-ophtalmologie, 5 : 120-124, 
1927. 
RR2 Roger, PL, and Reboul-Lachaux, J. 

Les spasmes oculaires de fonction dans l'en- 
cephalite epidemique. 

Annales de medecine, 22 : 19-44, 1927. 
TB Teulieres, M., and Beauvieux, J. 

Les manifestations oculaires tardives dans Ten- 
cephalite epidemique. 

8 



Revue d'oto-neuro-ophtalmologie, 9 : 349-395, 
1931. 

W Weill, G. 

La pseudo-conjonctivite du nouveau-ne. 
Bulletin de la Societe d'obstetrique et de 
gynecologie, number 6, pages 452-454, June, 1930. 
It was found by Doctor Weeks that certain definitions 
were incorrect or incomplete. In those instances, accord- 
ingly, the correct information is supplied in brackets. The 
terms needing such correction are : 

decollement de la retine 

elevateur de la paupiere superieure 

epicanthis 

excavation de la papille 

excavation papillaire 

extraction du cristallin 

facies d'Hutchinson 

follicules palpebraux 

ganglion lenticulaire 

ganglion ophtalmique 

glande de Meibomius 

hyalonyxis 

hygroblepharique 

iridectomie 

keratoscopie 

nevrite oedemateuse 

oblique inferieur de Toeil 

oblique superieur de Toeil 

ophtalmometre 

papille de stase 

papille etranglee 

petit oblique de Toeil 

pigmentation retinienne 

pourpre retinien 

pupilloscopie 

releveur de la paupiere superieure 

retinite pigmentaire 

retinite tigree 

retinoscopie 

skiascopie 

soudure de Knies 

stase papillaire 

xanthelasma 



See : ajustement de Toeil aux distances 
astigmatisme a axe oblique 
astigmatisme conforme a la regie 
astigmatisme contraire a la regie 
avoir mal aux yeux 
cataracte a taches disseminees 
cataracte a trois branches 
conjonctivite a diplobacilles 
conjonctivite a inclusions 
conjonctivite a pneumocoques 
conjonctivite a streptocoques 
conjonctivite lacrymale a pneumocoques des nou- 
veau-nes 

couteau a cataracte 
couteau a iridotomie 
couteaux a iridectomie 
crochet a strabisme 
curette a chalazion 

dacryocystite lacrymale a streptocoques 
deviation spasmodique du regard a un cote 
face-a-main 
fibre a noyaux 
keratite a pneumocoques 
ophtalmie a inclusions 
pericystite lacrymale a streptocoques 
pince a capsule 
pince a cataracte 
pince a chalazion 
pince a epilation 
pince a iris 

pince fenetree a chalazion 
reflexe pupillaire a la convergence 
regard au ciel 
regard au plafond 
sonde a voies lacrymales 
spasmes a bascule 
spasmes du regard a terre 
telescope a lentilles 
verres a cataracte 
verres a double foyer 
yeux a facettes 
yeux a fleur de tete 
yeux au plafond 

10 



a l'oeil nu 

with the naked eye, macroscopically (without a magni- 
fying glass) HDT 

with the eye alone, without the aid of a pair of glasses, 

of a microscope A 
a vue d'oeil 

visibly HDT 
a la vue simple 

macroscopically; with the eye, without a magnifying 

glass HDT 
abaissement m. 

couching, one way to operate on cataract; keratonyxis 

L 

See also : spasme d'abaissement 
abaissement de la cataracte m. 

depression of cataract A 
abaissement des globes m. 

catablepsia, abrupt downward deviation of the eyes; 

it usually represents the initial phase of bascule-move- 
ment deviation (more rarely it forms the terminal 

phase) [one of the complications and sequelae of epi- 
demic encephalitis] B 
abaissement du cristallin m. 

lowering of the crystalline lens (in cataract) HDT 
abaisse-paupiere m. 

eyelid depressor, an instrument designed to lower the 

eyelid L 
abaisser la cataracte 

to lower an opaque crystalline lens below the level of 

the pupil, in order to restore sight to a patient affected 

with cataract A 
abaisser le cristallin 

to lower the crystalline lens (in cataract) HDT 
abaisseur de l'oeil m. 

the muscle which lowers the eye ; deprimens oculi 

muscle ; rectus inferior muscle HDT 
abaisseur de la paupiere m. 

eyelid depressor, an instrument designed to lower the 

eyelid L 
abaisseur de la pupille m. 

rectus inferior muscle L 
abaisseurs m. 

muscles which lower the eye (the rectus inferior and 

the obliquus superior) M 
abat-jour m. (This word does not add an s in the plural 

[A]) 

11 



a paper or metal reflector adapted to a lamp or to any- 
other lighting device to shade the light A 
eyeshade; reflector which wards off the light; that 
which diminishes the light HDT 

abat-jour verts m. (This word does not add an s in the 
plural [A]) 
green eyeshades HDT 

abattre la cataracte 

to extract a cataract HDT 

abducteur See : nerf abducteur 

abducteur de l'oeil m. 

abducent muscle of the eye HDT 
external rectus muscle of the eye L 

abime See : yeux abimes 

ablepharie f. 

ablepharia, ablepharon, ablephary ; complete absence of 
the eyelids M 

ablepharon m. 

ablepharon, absence of eyelids L 

ablepsie f. 

blindness, synonym of caecity L 

absolu See: glaucome absolu 

accomodateur 

referable to accomodation L 
See also : muscles accomodateurs 

accomodatif, ive 

referable to accomodation M 
See also : amplitude accomodative 
deficit accomodatif 
mesoroptre accomodatif 
paralysie accomodative 
paresie accomodative 
spasme accomodatif 

accomodation f. 

accomodation, modification in crystalline refraction in 
direct connection with the activity of the ciliary mus- 
cle M 

See also: amplitude d'accomodation 
champ de l'accomodation 
echelle de Taccomodation 
parcours de l'accomodation 
spasme de Taccomodation 

accomodation de l'oeil f. 

accomodation of the eye; modification in curvature of 
the crystalline lens according to the distance of ob- 
jects HDT 

accompagne See : migraine ophtalmique accompagnee 

12 



accompagnements de la cataracte m. 

whitish, soft matter which sometimes remains in the 
capsule of the crystalline lens after extraction or couch- 
ing of the diseased cataract, and which, in spite of its 
name, is then the principal cause of the opacity; por- 
tions of the crystalline membrane which has become 
opaque may also form accompaniments whose removal 
is necessary to the success of the operation L 

achloropsie f. 

achloropsia, blindness for green M 

achlys m. 

achlys, caligo ; cloudiness or obscuring of the cornea L 

achromatie f. 

achromatism of the eye L 

achromatique See : lunette achromatique 

achromatisation f. 

operation to render a lens achromatic L 

achromatisme m. 

achromatism, diminution in aberrations of refrangi- 
bility evinced by lenses L 

achromatope m. and f. 

a person affected with achromatopsia M 

achromatope complet m. 

a person with total colour blindness M 

achromatopsie f. 

achromatopsia, the absence of all colour perception; it 

is relatively rare and is habitually accompanied by 

rather marked amblyopia without lesions of the deep 

membranes ; one aspect of Daltonism M 

a defect of the visual organ because of which light 

colours seem white or pink, and dark colours black 

HDT 

acne ciliaire f. 

acne ciliaris, hordeolum externum, where the initial site 
of the inflammation is the glands of Zeiss M 

acne meibomienne f. 

Meibomian acne, hordeolum internum, where the in- 
flammation is localised to the Meibomian glands M 

acquis See : nystagmus acquis 

acrochordon m. 

acrochordon; small tumour at the edge of the eyelids 

HDT 

name given to small tumours of the eyelids — hard and 

slender — supposed to resemble the end of a string; 

they are sometimes warts or wens (penciles verrucae), 

sometimes small hypertrophied sebaceous glands L 

13 



acuite de la vue f. 

visual acuity, more or less perfect distinctness of vision ; 

it is inversely proportional to the opening of the visual 

angle and diminshes when the latter increases L 
acuite visuelle f. 

visual acuity, the power of differentiation possessed by 

the macular region of the retina M 
acyanoblepsie f. 

acyanoblepsia, visual lesion characterised by inability 

to distinguish blue L 
adducteur de l'oeil m. 

internal rectus muscle of the eye L 
adenite meibomienne f. 

Meibomian adenitis ; name given by some authors 

either to inflammation of the Meibomian glands or to 

chalazion L 
adenophtalmie f. 

adenophthalmia, inflammation of the Meibomian 

glands L 
adherent See: cataracte adherente 

cataracte non adherente 
aegis f. 

white spot upon the cornea L 
aige f. (L) See: aegis 

aigu See : conjonctivite aigue causee par le bacille de 
Pfeiffer 

conjonctivite aigue contagieuse 
dacryoadenite aigue 
glaucome aigu 

osteoperiostite orbitaire aigue 
aiguille a cataracte f. 

cataract needle L 
aiguiller 

to depress the crystalline lens by means of a needle; to 

remove a cataract HDT 
ajustement de l'oeil aux distances m. 

an old term for accomodation HDT 
akyanoblepsie f. (L) See : acyanoblepsie 

albinisrne m. 

albinism ; congenital anomaly of organisation which 
consists in the diminution or even the absence of the 
cutaneous, iridic, or choroid pigment ; in albinos, the 
iris is pale pink and the pupil decidedly red, as in the 
eyes of white rabbits ; it is hard for albinos to endure 
sunlight, which fact has caused them to be termed 
"heliophobes" L 

14 



albugine f. 

albugo ; white spot in the eye HDT 

albugine, ee 

albugineous; referable to an albugo HDT 
See also : membrane albuginee de l'oeil 
tunique albuginee de Toeil 

albugineux, euse 

albugineous; referable to an albugo HDT 

albugo m. 

albugo M 

albuminurique See : amaurose albuminurique 
cataracte albuminurique 
retinite albuminurique 

alcoolique See : amblyopic nicotino-alcoolique 
nevrite nicotino-alcoolique 

alexie f. 

alexia, pure word blindness, in which the patient finds 
it impossible to read because written words have no 
sense for him ; he may not be able to recognise a single 
letter (letter blindness), or else he recognises letters 
but cannot put them into syllables (asyllabia) or into 
words (word blindness) M 

alexie musicale f. 

musical alexia, music blindness, a form of alexia in 
which the patient cannot read music M 

alopecie en clairiere f. 

broken eyebrow, an eyebrow evincing irregular inter- 
ruptions, caused by alopecia syphilitica; this condition 
is called also "sourcil brise" M 

alopecie sourciliere f. 

alopecia of the eyebrow, total loss or sparseness of the 
hairs of the eyebrow, usually due to burns, infections, 
syphilis, keratosis pilaris, alopecia, or leprosy M 

alphabet Braille m. 

the Braille alphabet, composed of raised points per- 
ceptible to the touch ; it is used in works printed espe- 
cially for the blind M 

alternant See : strabisme alternant 
vision alternante 

alterne See : hemiplegie alterne 

amaurose f. 

amaurosis M 

diminution or loss of sight, without apparent cause in 
the visual organ HDT 

disease characterised by the complete or incomplete 
loss of sight, without appreciable alteration of the con- 
stituent parts of the eyeball; amaurosis is due to idio- 

15 



pathic or sympathetic paralysis of the retina ; it is vul- 
garly termed "gutta serena" A 

amaurose albuminurique f. 

amaurosis referable to albuminuria L 

amaurose congenitale f. 

congenital amaurosis, in which the eyeballs seem nor- 
mal but evince complete caecity; pupillary reflexes to 
light may be conserved M 

amaurose diabetique f. 

amaurosis referable to diabetes, glycosuric amaurosis; 
there is no trace of retinal infiltration, and the very 
small effusions of blood are neither numerous nor fan- 
shaped, but disseminated, like exudative white plate- 
lets, over the whole fundus of the eye ; the veins are in- 
curved and the arteries thin L 

amaurose generate f. 

general amaurosis (complete or incomplete), as dis- 
tinguished from partial amaurosis L 

amaurose glycosurique f. 

glycosuric amaurosis, amaurosis referable to diabetes; 
there is no trace of retinal infiltration, and the very 
small effusions of blood are neither numerous nor fan- 
shaped, but disseminated, like exudative white plate- 
lets, over the whole fundus of the eye; the veins are 
incurved and the arteries thin L 

amaurose hysterique f. 

amaurosis referable to hysteria; it is one degree more 
marked than hysteric amblyopia ; it may attack one eye 
or both eyes ; bilateral amaurosis is called hysteric 
caecity M 

amaurose partielle f. 

partial amaurosis (scotomata, stricture of the field of 
vision), as distinguished from general amaurosis L 

amaurotique 

amaurotic, referable to amaurosis M 
See also : amblyopic amaurotique 
oeil de chat amaurotique 

amblyope 

a. affected with amblyopia M 
m. person with amblyopia L 

amblyopic f. 

amblyopia M 

weakening of the sight HDT 

amblyopic amaurotique f. 

amblyopia brought about by the lesions which cause 
amaurosis L 

16 



amblyopie asthenique f. 

amblyopia caused by a local or general weakening L 

amblyopie congenitale f. 

congenital amblyopia, sometimes called amblyopia ex 
anopsia; it often occurs in the deviated eye of persons 
with strabismus, but it may exist in the absence of 
strabismus M 

amblyopie congestive f. 

amblyopia caused by an ocular congestion L 

amblyopie ex anopsia f. 

amblyopia ex anopsia, a term sometimes applied to con- 
genital amblyopia; it often occurs in the deviated eye 
of persons with strabismus, but it may exist in the ab- 
sence of strabismus M 

amblyopie hysterique f. 

amblyopia referable to hysteria; unilateral or bilateral 
stricture of the visual field unexplained by any peri- 
pheral or central lesion ; it is sometimes described as 
anaesthesia of the retina M 

amblyopie nicotino-alcoolique f. 

toxic amblyopia, nicotinoalcoholic amblyopia; a toxic 
disease of the optic nerve caused by the use of tobacco 
and alcohol M 

amblyopie sthenique f. 

amblyopia caused by nervous overexcitement L 

amblyopie toxique f. 

toxic amblyopia, nicotinoalcoholic amblyopia; a toxic 
disease of the optic nerve caused by the use of tobacco 
and alcohol M 

ametrope 

a. referable to ametropia, ametropic 
s. person with astigmatism M 

ametropie f. 

ametropia ; the collective name of myopia, presbyopia, 
and astigmatism L 

anomaly of the visual system which results in myopia 
or presbyopia HDT 

ametropie axile f . 

axial ametropia M 

ametropie de courbures f. 
curvature ametropia M 

amphodiplopie f. 

amphodiplopia, visual defect which makes a person see 
double with both eyes L 

amplitude accomodative f. 

amplitude of accomodation, the dioptric effect produced 
by the act of accomodation M 

17 



amplitude d'accomodation f. 

Same as preceding entry 

anablepsie f. 

anablepsia, upward deviation of the eyes [one of the 
complications and sequelae of epidemic encephalitis] 
TB 

anabrochisme m. 

anabrochism ; operation for entropion which consisted 
in drawing a needle threaded with a double hair 
through the exterior part of the eyelid, in catching the 
eyelash in the loop of the hair, in bringing it back upon 
the exterior part of the eyelid, and in fastening it there 
with adhesive tape; pulling of eyelashes by means of 
a thread L 

anatomique See : axe anatomique de Toeil 

anchilops m. 

small tumour at the corner of the eye HDT 
small tumour situated toward the internal angle of the 
eye, in front of or at the side of the lachrymal sac, and 
not in this sac, which fact distinguishes anchilops from 
a lachrymal tumour L 

tumour, ordinarily inflammatory, which is situated at 
the internal angle of the eye, and fairly often dege- 
nerates into an abscess; when this abscess opens, it 
takes the name of aegilops A 

ankyloblepharon m. (L) See : ankyloblepharon 

anerythroblepsie f. 

anerythroblepsia ; Daltonism with inability to distin- 
guish red, which is blended into ash gray; it was the 
case of Dalton himself L 

anerythropsie f. 

partial dyschromatopsia, Daltonism ; the confusion of 
colours seems to be due to the fact that the retinal 
fibres which give the sensation of red are without sen- 
sitiveness L 

anerythropsia, blindness for red, weak perception of 
red M 

angle See : grand angle 
petit angle 

angle externe m. 

external angle of eye L 

angle interne m. 

internal angle of eye, internal canthus, commissura 
palpebrarum medialis M 

angle irido-corneen m. 

iridocorneal angle, angle of the iris M 

18 



angle optique m. 

optic angle, visual angle, angle at which one sees an 
object HDT 

angle visuel m. 

visual angle, optic angle ; in optics, an imaginary angle 
whose summit is the optic centre of the eye, formed by 
rays starting from the extreme points of an object L 

angulaire See : conjonctivite angulaire 

aniridie f. 

aniridia M , 

absence of the iris L 

anisocorie f. 

anisocoria, pupillary inequality M 

anisometropie f. 

anisometropia, a difference in refraction between the 
two eyes M 

anisometropique 

anisometropie, referable to anisometropia M 
See also : strabisme anisometropique 

ankyloblepharon m. 

ankyloblepharon, in which the palpebral edges are 
fused and the eyeball always suffers an arrest in de- 
velopment M 

praeternatural fusion, whether congenital or accidental, 
of the free edge of the two eyelids L 

ankylocore f. 

obliteration of the pupil L 

annexes de l'oeil f. 

adnexa oculi ; the nerves and the vessels that the eye 
receives, its muscles and their vessels, the eyelids, the 
conjunctiva, and the lachrymal system L 

annulaire See : scotome annulaire 

anoblepsie f. 

anablepsia, upward displacement — ordinarily abrupt — 
of both eyeballs [one of the complications and sequelae 
of epidemic encephalitis] RR2 

anobleptique 

referable to anablepsia RR2 
See also : crises anobleptiques 

anoopsie f. 

anoopsia, upward strabismus L 

anophtalmie f. 

anophthalmia, apparent absence of the eyeball M 

anophtalmohemie f. 

deficiency of blood in the eye, weakness of the circula- 
tion of the eye L 

19 



anopsia See: amblyopic ex anopsia 

anopsie f. 

anopsia, blindness, caecity; wrongly used for anoopsie 
L 

anopticonervie f. 

a bad word proposed as a substitute for amaurosis L 

anorrnal See trichromates anormaux 

anse arterielle prepapillaire f. 

prepapillary arterial loop ; a vascular anomaly in which 
an artery of the papilla moves forward into the vitreous 
humour, then curves back to form a loop, winds about 
itself and resumes its regular course at the surface of 
the papilla and of the retina M 

anterieur See : astigmatisme corneen anterieur 
cataracte polaire anterieure 
chambre anterieure 
cristalloide anterieure 
lenticone anterieur 
sclero-choro'idite anterieure 
segment anterieur 

staphylome anterieur de la sclerotique 
synechie anterieure 
vaisseaux ciliaires anterieurs 

antiglaucomateux, euse 

antiglaucomatous, directed against glaucoma M 
See also: iridectomie antiglaucomateuse 

aphake m. 

a person with aphakia M 

aphakie f. 

aphakia, aphacia, absence of the crystalline lens M 
congenital, traumatic, or operative absence of the crys- 
talline lens L 

aphaque 

referable to aphakia; afflicted with aphakia; aphacic, 
aphakic M 

deprived of the lens, whether from an accident which 
caused the dislocation or from operation for cataract L 

aphasie optique f. 

optic aphasia; the subject recognises an object and its 
properties but cannot name it when he sees it; he can 
name it if he smells it or feels it M 

aphasie sensorielle f. 

sensory aphasia, caused by the destruction of the centre 
of visual mental representation of ideas ; it includes, 
among other symptoms, word blindness M 

aphasie sensorielle de Wernicke f. 

Wernicke's cortical sensory aphasia, the combination 

20 



of word blindness and word deafness ; the patient does 
not understand the significance of words pronounced 
in his presence M 

aplanetique See : lentille aplanetique 

aplanetisme m. 

aplanetism ; in optics, the absence of aberration of 
sphericity L 

apodacrytique m. 

that which is adapted to stop the flow of tears L 

aponevrose de l'orbite f. 
Tenon's capsule L 

aponevrose de Tenon f. 

Tenon's capsule [Littre incorrectly places an acute ac- 
cent on the e in Tenon] L 

aponevrose orbito-oculaire f. 
Tenon's capsule L 

apoplexie choroidienne f. 

choroid haemorrhage, subretinal haemorrhage, which 
causes detachment of the retina L 

apoplexie retinienne f. 

thrombosis of the vena centralis retinae M 

apoplexie sous-retinienne f. 

subretinal haemorrhage, choroid haemorrhage, which 
causes detachment of the retina L 

appareil cristallinien m. 

the lens capsule and the crystalline lens L 

appareil lacrymal m. 

lachrymal apparatus or system, composed of the secre- 
tory system and the excretory system M 

approche See : lunette d'approche 

aqueux See : humeur aqueuse 

membrane de l'humeur aqueuse 

arbre vasculaire m. 

Purkinje's figures ; preception, in the field of vision, of 
the shadow which the retinal vessels project on the 
posterior layer of the retina; the light must penetrate 
into the eye very obliquely ; it is managed by looking 
at a dark background while moving a candle to and 
fro below the eye L 

arc senile m. 

arcus senilis ; gerontoxon ; an opacification of the cornea 
parallel to the sclerocorneal limbus; it is formed by 
the meeting of two semicircles (upper and lower) 
whose edges fuse at the extremities of the horizontal 
diameter of the cornea ; it rarely appears before the age 
of fifty M 
alteration which is due to a deposit of fatty granula- 

21 



tion ; a circular shadow upon the eye, due to an altera- 
tion of the cornea HDT 

opacity of the circumference of the cornea observed 
after the age of fifty to sixty, in the form of an upper 
arc at first, then a yellowish complete circle (senile 
circle) ; it results from the fatty transformation of the 
corneal cells, and ordinarily coincides with a similar 
degeneration of the arterial system and of the cardiac 
fibres L 

arcade d'une lunette f. 

bridge, the part of the spectacle frame which rests upon 
the nose HDT 

arcade orbitaire f. 

orbital margin, the protuberant edge of the orbit HDT 
projecting edge of the upper wall of the eyesocket, 
which forms part of the frontal bone and terminates by 
two apophyses called orbital apophyses, one internal, 
and the other external L 

arcade sourciliere f. 
eyebrow M 

the projection of the os frontale above the eyesocket A 
transverse projection of the frontal bone immediately 
above the upper edge of the eyesockets, less pronounced 
on the outside than on the inside L 

argema m. 

argema ; round and superficial ulcer of the cornea, which 
begins by an almost transparent phlyctena, and whose 
rupture leaves an excavation likewise transparent, 
which is clearly perceptible only when looking at the 
eye somewhat from one side L 

argemon m. 

Same as preceding entry 

Argyll- Robertson See: pupille d'Argyll-Robertson 

signe d'Argyll-Robertson 

aride See: cataracte aride siliqueuse 

artere centrale f. 

central artery of the retina M 

artere centrale de la retine f. 

central artery of the retina, collateral branch of the 
ophthalmic artery L 

artere choroidienne f. 
choroid artery L 

artere hyaloi'de f . 

hyaloid artery M 

artere hyaloidienne f . 
hyaloid artery M 

22 



artere lacrymale f. 

lachrymal artery; branch of the ophthalmic artery 
which starts at the optic foramen, is anastomosed near 
its origin with the branches of the middle meningeal 
artery, sends out branches to the lachrymal gland, and 
ends in the upper eyelid L 

artere ophtalmique f. 

ophthalmic artery L 

artere orbitaire f. 

ophthalmic artery L 

artere sourciliere f. 

supraorbital artery L 

artere uveale f. 

name given to the ciliary arteries L 

arteres ciliaires posterieures f. 
posterior ciliary arteries M 

arteres cilio-retiniennes f. 

cilioretinal arteries ; they are generally located on the 
temporal side of the papilla M 

arteriel See : anse arterielle prepapillaire 

arthritique See : ophtalmie arthritique 

artificiel See : oeil artificiel 

pupille artificielle 

asthenique See : amblyopic asthenique 

asthenopie f. 

asthenopia M 

impossibility of sustained viewing of objects close at 
hand ; it is due, not to a lesion of the membranes or of 
the media of the eye, but to a defect in accomodation 
or a dynamic insufficiency of the internal rectus mus- 
cles ; hebetudo visus, ocular fatigue which occurs when 
one tries to use the eyes for close work L 

asthenopie de convergence f. 

asthenopia of convergence M 

asthenopie nerveuse f. 

nervous asthenopia, ocular neurasthenia, the chief 
symptoms of which are pain and fatigue M 

asthenopie nevropathique f. 

neuropathic asthenopia M 

astigmate 

a. astigmatic, referable to astigmatism 
s. person with astigmatism M 

astigmatique 

astigmatic, referable to astigmatism L 
See also : lentille astigmatique 

23 






astigmatisme m. 

astigmatism M 

inequality of curvature of the refractive media of the 

eye HDT 

a word indicating that the light rays coming from a 

centre no longer meet in a single point, are no longer 

homocentric, and are affected with monochromatic 

aberration L 

astigmatisme a axe oblique m. 
oblique astigmatism M 

astigmatisme compose m. 

compound astigmatism, in which the length of the eye- 
ball is abnormal (myopic eye or hypermetropic eye) M 

astigmatisme conforme a la regie m. 

astigmatism with the rule, astigmatism according to 
the rule, regular astigmatism ; it is characterised by the 
replacement of focus by two focal straight lines per- 
pendicular to each other; the term is used when the 
axis of the most refringent meridian is vertical or very 
close to vertical (and when the concave cylindric lens 
which corrects it is horizontal or close to horizontal) M 

astigmatisme contraire a la regie m. 

astigmatism against the rule, inverse astigmatism; in 
it the most refringent meridian is horizontal instead of 
vertical M 

astigmatisme corneen m. 
corneal astigmatism M 

astigmatisme corneen anterieur m. 
anterior corneal astigmatism M 

astigmatisme cristallinien m. 
crystalline astigmatism M 

astigmatisme direct m. 

astigmatism with the rule, astigmatism according to the 
rule, regular astigmatism ; it is characterised by the re- 
placement of focus by two focal straight lines perpen- 
dicular to each other; the term is used when the axis 
of the most refringent meridian is vertical or very close 
to vertical (and when the concave cylindric lens which 
corrects it is horizontal or close to horizontal) M 

astigmatisme hypermetropique m. 
hypermetropic astigmatism M 

astigmatisme inverse m. 

inverse astigmatism, astigmatism against the rule; in 
it the most refringent meridian is horizontal instead of 
vertical M 

astigmatisme irregulier m. 

irregular astigmatism, resulting from central cicatricial 

24 



lesions of the cornea or from a peculiar alteration in the 
corneal tissue, keratoconus, and sometimes from modi- 
fications in the crystalline lens undergoing opacifica- 
tion M 

astigmatisme mixte m. 

mixed astigmatism, in which one of the axes is myopic 
and the other is hypermetropic M 

astigmatisme myopique m. 
myopic astigmatism M 

astigmatisme myopique compose m. 
compound myopic astigmatism M 

astigmatisme myopique simple m. 
simple myopic astigmatism M 

astigmatisme oblique m. 

oblique astigmatism M 

astigmatisme physiologique m. 
physiologic astigmatism M 

astigmatisme regulier m. 

regular astigmatism, characterised by the replacement 
of focus by two focal straight lines perpendicular to 
each other ; astigmatism according to the rule, astigma- 
tism with the rule; the term is used when the axis of 
the most refringent meridian is vertical or very close 
to vertical (and when the concave cylindric lens which 
corrects it is horizontal or close to horizontal) M 

astigmatisme simple m. 

simple astigmatism, in which one of the planes of re- 
fraction is emmetropic M 

astigmometre m. 

astigmometer, instrument designed to determine the 
degree of astigmatism L 

asyllabie f. 

asyllabia, a form of alexia in which the patient reco- 
gnises letters but cannot assemble them into syllables M 

atone See : oeil atone 

atresie lacrymale f. 

atresia of the lachrymal canal M 

atretoblepharie f. 

nonseparation or agglutination of the eyelids L 

atretopsie f. 

imperforation of the pupil L 

atrophie de la papille optique f. 
atrophy of the optic papilla L 

atrophie du nerf optique f. 

atrophy of the optic nerve ; disappearance or partial or 
total decrease in size of the nerve elements of the optic 
nerve, announced by certain lesions visible with the 

25 



ophthalmoscope and by a diminution in the visual 

acuity L 
atrophie optique f. 

atrophy of the optic nerve M 
atrophique See: choroidite atrophique 

excavation atrophique du nerf optique 
retinite maculaire atrophique 
atypique See : keratite atypique 
au See : a 
aureole f. 

any circle of light or colour that the eye sees around 

an object HDT 
auriculaire See : nystagmus auriculaire 
autoophtalmoscope m. 

autoophthalmoscope, an instrument so designed that 

the observer may examine the interior of his own eye L 
aux See: a 

avant See : regarder en avant 
aveugle 

a. blind, deprived of the use of sight A 
deprived of sight HDT 

s. blind person M 

one who is deprived of sight, or who has never en- 
joyed sight L 

See also : devenir aveugle 

etre aveugle de naissance 
quasi-aveugle 
tache aveugle 
aveuglement m. 

blindness, loss of sight, blinding HDT 
aveuglement 

blindly, in a blind manner HDT 
aveugle-ne m. (Plural = des aveugles-nes) 

a person born blind, a person blind from birth, a con- 
genially blind person HDT 
aveugler 

to blind, to deprive of sight, to take away the sight ; to 

deprive of the use of sight momentarily, to dazzle HDT 

to render blind; by exaggeration, used for: to dazzle, 

to destroy sight for some time A 
s'aveugler 

to put out one's own eyes M 
avoir la berlue 

to see things awry HDT 

See also: berlue 



avoir des yeux de chat 

to have eyes between 



gray and russet 
26 



avoir mal aux yeux 

to have sore eyes, to have something wrong with one's 
eyes HDT 

avoir la patte d'oie 

to have a wrinkle with three furrows at the corner of 
the eye; to have crow's feet HDT 

avoir la vue basse 

to be nearsighted so that one has to stoop to see ob- 
jects HDT 

not to be able to distinguish objects except at close 
range A 

avoir la vue longue 

to be farsighted HDT 

avoir les yeux battus 

to have circles under the eyes, as if the eyes had been 
bruised by a blow HDT 

to have a black ring around the eyes, as if the flesh were 
mortified A 

avoir les yeux en papillotes 

to have eyes that wink or blink HDT 

axe See : astigmatisme a axe oblique 

axe anatomique de l'oeil m. 

imaginary line measuring the greatest extent of the eye 
from the entrance of the optic nerve into the sclerotic L 

axe du nerf optique m. 

Same as preceding entry 

axe optique m. 

axis optica, optic axis M 

direction of a light ray falling perpendicularly on the 

eye HDT 

axe visuel in. 

the line which runs from the centre of the eye to the 
object viewed HDT 

axis optica, optic axis, visual axis; anteroposterior di- 
ameter of the eye, or imaginary line passing through 
the anterior surface of the cornea and the middle of the 
pupil and of the crystalline lens ; it proceeds to fall on 
the macula lutea of the retina; it is by following this 
line that one ordinarily looks at objects and perceives 
them more clearly L 

axial See: cataracte axiale 
vision axiale 

axile See: ametropie axile 
myopie axile 

27 



bacille See: conjonctivite aigue causee par le bacille de 
Pfeiffer 

bacille de Morax m. 

Morax's bacillus, specific diplobacillus of subacute con- 
junctivitis; it is much larger than the Weeks bacillus, 
constituted by two elements with rounded ends sepa- 
rated by a clear space ; it sometimes forms little chains ; 
it is gram-negative L 

bacille de Weeks m. 

Weeks's bacillus, the Koch-Weeks bacillus, Haemo- 
philus of Koch-Weeks; the specific microbe of acute 
contagious conjunctivitis ; it is a very fine bacillus which 
is gram-negative L 

bacille du xerosis m. 

bacillus xerosis, Corynebacterium xerosis M 

bacille massue de Weeks m. 

Weeks's Corynebacterium, Corynebacterium xerosis; 
bacillus appearing frequently at the surface of the mu- 
cosae and characterised by its clubshaped form ; it 
grows rapidly upon gelatinised serum, like the Bacillus 
diphtheriae, and may be confused with the latter; it 
belongs to the group of pseudodiphtheric bacilli ; it is 
frequently found upon the ocular mucosa and was first 
described as the bacillus of xerosis L 

baguette de Maddox f. 

the Maddox rod, used to test accomodation M 

baignoire oculaire f. 
eyecup L 

baisser les yeux 

to look downward, to lower the eyes, to drop the 
eyes HDT 

bajoue f. 

in certain animals (hog, calf), the lateral part of the 
head, extending from the eye to the jaw HDT 

bandeau m. 

tissue placed over one's eyes to prevent one from see- 
ing HDT 

circular bandage designed to keep a topica applied upon 
the eyes, or to protect sore eyes from light L 

bandelette See: opacite en bandelette 

bandelette des nerfs optiques f. 

bundle of white fibres which, after originating at the 
surface of the geniculate bodies, a dependency of the 
optic thalamus, winds about the external part of the 
cerebral peduncles, whose direction it crosses obliquely 
to proceed forward and inward and to end at the 
chiasma L 

28 



bandelette optique f. 
optic fibre M 

bander les yeux 

to bandage the eyes, to keep the eyes closed by means 
of a bandage HDT 

barre See : cataracte barree 

bas, basse See : avoir la vue basse 

deviation des yeux vers le bas 

spasmes vers le bas 

vue basse 

yeux revulses vers le bas 

bascule See : spasmes a bascule 

Basedow See : maladie de Basedow 

basedowien m. 

patient afflicted with exophthalmic goitre L 

basedowisme m, 

the cardinal signs of exophthalmic goitre L 

bassin oculaire m. 
eyecup L 

bassiner les yeux 

to moisten the eyes gently HDT 

batonnet m. 

retinal rod, small cylindric body in the retina HDT 
cylindric element composed of two segments, one ex- 
ternal and the other internal; with the cones the rods 
form a layer of the retina L 

battu See : avoir les yeux battus 

Bell See: signe de Bell 

benin, igne See : encanthis benigne 

Berger See : signe de Berger 

Berlin See : trouble de Berlin 

berlue f. 

suffusio oculorum, dazzled eyes ; visual lesion in which 
one sees nonexistent objects in front of the eyes, such 
as flies, spider webs, et cetera L 
a visual disturbance which makes one see imaginary 
objects or makes one see real objects deformed HDT 
sort of dazzling, which is ordinarily temporary A 
See also: avoir la berlue 

Bernard See : syndrome de Claude Bernard-Horner 

besides f. 

an archaic term, used mockingly, to designate a pair of 
glasses mounted and held before the eyes to aid the 
sight HDT 

sort of spectacles with sidearms which fit upon the 
head A 

29 



bevue f. 

diplopia HDT 

bien See: yeux bien fendus 

bifocal See : verres bifocaux 

bigle 

a. crosseyed, squinteyed, strabismic (an archaic term) 

HDT 
s. who has one eye or both eyes turned inward (a 
term but little used) A 

bigler 

to look crosseyed, to squint A 

binasal See : hemianopsie binasale 

binocle m. 

pair of glasses held with the hand ; it is formed of two 
branches joined in a single hinge, and it is used to see 
objects with both eyes at the same time; it is also the 
term for a sort of double telescope, by means of which 
one may observe a distant object with both eyes at the 
same time; it is but little used now A 
bandage covering both eyes M 

a sort of double telescope (archaic) ; lorgnette, nose- 
glasses ; binocular bandage HDT 
binocle, optic instrument analogous to besides, by 
means of which one sees an object with both eyes at 
the same time, which fact distinguishes it from a single 
lorgnette ; in surgery, a bandage designed to cover both 
eyes ; it is crossed in back upon the occiput and in front 
upon the root of the nose L 

binoculaire 

binocular, referable to both eyes, affecting both eyes 

HDT 

which is for both eyes, which takes place by the use of 

both eyes A 

See also : diplopie binoculaire 

ophtalmoscope binoculaire 
ophtalmoscopie binoculaire 
telescope binoculaire 
vision binoculaire 

bitemporal See : hemianopsie bitemporale 

Bitot See : syndrome de Bitot 

blanc See : faire les yeux blancs 

blanc de l'oeil m. 

sclerotic, white of the eye HDT 

the part of the eye which appears white, and which in 
anatomy is called the cornea; the cornea opaca or 
sclerotic A 

30 



blennophtalmie f. 

blennophthalmia ; inflammation of the conjunctiva 
whose special characteristic is the discharge, at the sur- 
face of this membrane, of a mucosopurulent fluid L 

blennorragique See : conjonctivite blennorragique 

conjonctivite blennorragique metasta- 

tique 

ophtalmie blennorragique 

blennorrhee See: blepharo-blennorrhee 

blepharadenite f. 

blepharadenitis, inflammation of the palpebral glands, 
inflammation of the Meibomian glands L 

blepharides f. 

eyelashes, cilia L 

blepharique 

palpebral L 

blepharisme m. (L) See : blepharospasme 

blepharite f. 

blepharitis ; inflammation of the eyelids, whether it oc- 
cupies their whole tissue or (as is more frequent) af- 
fects only their free edge and its hair and mucous fol- 
licles L 

blepharite ciliaire f. 

ciliary blepharitis, inflammation of the free edge of the 
eyelids M 

in ciliary blepharitis proper, as opposed to glandulous 
blepharitis, the catarrhal secretion of the palpebral con- 
junctiva, the Meibomian glands, and the hair glands of 
the eyelashes dries at the base of the latter, reddens the 
skin and causes its ulceration, gradually accompanied 
by the fall of the eyelashes L 

blepharite cryptogamique f. 

cryptogamic blepharitis, in which the microscopic para- 
site inhabits the cilium or its root M 

blepharite favique f. 

blepharitis referable to favus, caused by the presence of 
Achorion schoenleinii ; this is an extremely rare type M 

blepharite glanduleuse f. 

glandulous blepharitis, inflammation of the ciliary edge 
and of the Meibomian glands, a variety of ciliary 
blepharitis ; it is much commoner than ciliary blepha- 
ritis proper, especially in the chronic state L 

blepharite lepreuse f. 

blepharitis occurring in leprosy M 

blepharite parasitaire f. 

parasitic blepharitis, ciliary inflammation due to the 

31 



presence of animal parasites or of cryptogamic para- 
sites M 

blepharite pediculaire f. 

blepharitis caused by the presence of Pediculus capitis 
or Phthirius inguinalis among the cilia, giving rise to a 
slight redness of the free edge and to more or less vio- 
lent irritation ; there may be a production of crusts at 
the base of the cilia which masks the presence of para- 
sites or of their eggs M 

blepharite syphilitique f. 

syphilitic blepharitis M 

blepharite trichophytique f. 

trichophytic blepharitis M 

blepharite ulcereuse syphilitique f. 

syphilitic ulcerous blepharitis, marginal tarsitis M 

blepharo-blennorrhee f. 

blennorrhoea of the eyelids, ophthalmia neonatorum, 
purulent ophthalmia of the newborn; discharge of pu- 
rulent mucosities at the surface of the palpebral con- 
junctiva L 

blepharochalazis m. 

blepharochalasis M 

blepharoclonie f. 

blepharoclonus, abnormal twitching of the eyelids [one 
of the complications and sequelae of epidemic encepha- 
litis] B 

blepharo-colobome m. 

coloboma of the eyelids L 

blepharo-conjonctivite f. 

simultaneous blepharitis and conjunctivitis M 
simultaneous inflammation of the eyelids and of the 
conjunctiva, or oculopalpebral conjunctivitis L 

blepharo-conjonctivite morbilleuse f. 

blepharoconjunctivitis referable to measles M 

blepharometre m. 

blepharometer, instrument for the treatment of trich- 
iasis (Buzzi, 1828) L 

blepharoncose f. 

blepharoncus, tumour of the eyelids L 

blepharophimosis m. 

blepharophimosis, in which the eyelids and the palpe- 
bral aperture exist but are insufficiently developed ; the 
resulting disfigured state may be remedied by external 
canthotomy M 

narrowness of the palpebral aperture, congenital or fol- 
lowing traumatic or inflammatory lesions of the eye- 
lids L 

32 



blepharophimosis cicatriciel m. 

cicatricial blepharophimosis, diminution in length of 
the palpebral aperture caused by fusion of the external 
canthus (a cicatricial complication of trachoma) M 

blepharophtalmie f. 

simultaneous inflammation of the eyelids and of the 
conjunctiva L 

blepharophyme m. 

blepharophyma, tumour of the eyelids L 

blepharoplastie f. 

blepharoplasty, plastic surgery of the eyelids M 
formation of a new eyelid with the adjacent skin of the 
eye, when the natural eyelid has been wholly or partly 
destroyed, by the French method or by the Indian 
method of autoplasty L 

blepharoplegie f. 

blepharoplegia ; paralysis of the eyelids, particularly of 
the upper one L 

blepharoptose f. 

blepharoptosis ; complete or incomplete drooping of the 
upper eyelid in front of the eyeball L 

blepharopyorrhee m. 

blepharopyorrhoea, ophthalmia neonatorum, purulent 
ophthalmia of the newborn L 

blepharorraphie f. 

blepharorrhaphy, tarsorrhaphy M 

blepharospasme m. 

blepharospasm, spasm of the orbicular muscle of the 
eyelids causing transitory or permanent occlusion of 
the eyelids ; there are two types, clonic and tonic M 
spasm of the eyelids, divided into tonic spasm, in which 
the eyes remain convulsively closed during it, and clonic 
spasm, in which they open and close continually with 
great rapidity L 

blepharospasme clonique m. 

clonic blepharospasm, in which winking becomes ab- 
normally frequent and intense M 

blepharospasme hysterique m. 

blepharospasm caused by hysteria M 

blepharospasme tonique m. 

tonic blepharospasm, in which the orbicular muscle is 
permanently contracted M 

blepharostat m. 

blepharostat M 

blepharostenose f. 

blepharostenosis, accidental diminution of the palpebral 
aperture (Ammon) L 



blepharoxyste m. 

instrument which served to remove callosities that had 
developed at the internal surface of the eyelids L 

bord ciliaire m. 

ciliary edge HDT 

bord des paupieres m. 

edge or rim of the eyelids HDT 

bord orbitaire m. 
orbital edge M 

bord orbitaire superieur m. 

upper edge of the eyesocket M 

borgne 

a. one-eyed; having but one eye or seeing with but 
one eye L 
blind in one eye M 

who sees with one eye only; by extension, who 
does not see HDT 
m. a man with one eye, a one-eyed man M 

who does not see except with one eye, to whom one 
eye is lacking A 

borgnesse f. 

a woman with one eye only (used but rarely) HDT 
a low and injurious term which is applied to a woman 
or a girl with but one eye A 

bornoyer 

to be blind in one eye (archaic) ; to examine something, 
by shutting one eye, for purposes of alignment or tak- 
ing the level HDT 

to look with one eye while shutting the other, in order 
to tell better whether an alignment is quite correct, 
whether a surface is quite plane A 

bothrion m. 

bothrion ; a small ulcer of the cornea, analogous to ar- 
gema, but deeper than it, and likewise commencing by 
an almost transparent phlyctena, which bursts at the 
end of several days and leaves a cavity distinguished 
only when looking at the eye from the side L 

Bowman See : tubes de Bowman 

brachymetrope 

brachymetropic L 

brachymetropie f. 

brachymetropia, state of the brachymetropic eye which 
results in myopia (Donders) L 

bradycinesie oculaire f. 

ocular bradykinesia, amyostatic syndrome, myostatic 
fixed gaze [one of the complications and sequelae of 
epidemic encephalitis] B 

34 



bradycinesie pupillaire f. 

pupillary bradykinesia : slowness of the pupillary re- 
sponse to light, to close fixation, or to both simultane- 
ously; slowness of movement in reaching its limits; 
slowness of the pupil in returning to its original size 
[one of the complications and sequelae of epidemic en- 
cephalitis] B 

Braille See: alphabet Braille 

branche See : cataracte a trois branches 

branlant See : cataracte branlante 

brightique See : retinite brightique 

brise See : sourcil brise 

broiement de la cataracte m. 

keratonyxis, lowering or crushing or discission of the 
crystalline lens by means of a corneal incision L 

broussailleux See : sourcil broussailleux 

bulbaire 

bulbar, referable to the eyeball M 
See also : conjonctive bulbaire 
juxtabulbaire 
nevrite retrobulbaire 
retrobulbaire 

bulbe de l'oeil m. 
eyeball HDT 

buphtalmie f. 

buphthalmia ; augmentation in the volume of the eye, 
and, in general, first degree of hydrophthalmos ; this 
name has sometimes been given to a disease charac- 
terised by turgescence of the vitreous humour, which 
distends the eye and pushes the crystalline lens and the 
iris forward L 

buphthalmie f. 

abnormal protrusion of the eyeball, ordinarily indicat- 
ing hydrops of the eye HDT 

buphthalmia, increased volume of the eye; it is ob- 
served in infantile glaucoma M 



caecum See : foramen caecum 

punctum caecum 
calcaire See : cataracte calcaire 
calfeutrage m. 

synonym of "colmatage", q. v. Pesme 
calfeutrer 

to perform "calfeutrage", q. v. Pesme 

35 



caligineux, euse 

caliginous, said of eyes when they lose their brilliancy 
and turn dark L 

caligo m. 

caligo, achlys ; cloudiness or obscuring of the cornea L 

canal ciliaire de Schlemni m. 

Schlemm's ciliary canal; venous plexus situated in the 
sclerotic, near its lower surface, at the junction of this 
membrane and the cornea ; it receives part of the veins 
of the ciliary muscle and sends out the anterior ciliary 
veins ; the veins which compose it appear annular, 
which fact causes them as a whole to be taken for a 
single canal or circular sinus L 

canal de Cloquet m. 

Cloquet's canal, a space in the vitreous humour M 

canal de Petit m. 

Petit's canal; annular prismatic space which is found 
between the vitreous humour and the ciliary body, and 
which embraces the whole circumference of the crys- 
talline lens ; same as "canal godronne" L 

canal de Schlemm m. 
Schlemm's canal M 

canal godronne m. 

Petit's canal ; annular prismatic space which is found 
between the vitreous humour and the ciliary body, and 
which embraces the whole circumference of the crys- 
talline lens; same as "canal de Petit" L 
the canal which encircles the crystalline lens, between 
the ciliary body and the vitreous humour HDT 

canal hyaloidien m. 

hyaloid canal ; passage which exists only in the foetus, 
runs through the vitreous humour, and is occupied by 
the central artery of the retina as it goes to ramify itself 
upon the posterior surface of the crystalline lens ; as to 
the pretended reflection of the hyaloid membrane in 
this canal, it does not exist L 

canal lacrymal inferieur m. 
lower lachrymal canal L 

canal lacrymal superieur m. 
upper lachrymal canal L 

canal nasal m. 

nasal canal, through which the tears pass into the nasal 
fossae; canal extending from the lachrymal sac to the 
meatus nasi inferior, and formed by the superior maxil- 
lary bone, the os unguis, and the inferior turbinate 
bone L 

36 



canal optique m. 

optic canal M 
canal sous-orbitaire m. 

infraorbital canal, suborbital canal ; small duct upon the 
orbital surface of the superior maxillary bone L 

canalicule lacrymal m. 

canaliculus lacrimalis M 

canthectomie f. 

canthectomy, excision or incision of the canthus L 

canthite f. 

canthitis, inflammation of the canthus L 

canthoplastie f. 

canthoplasty ; operation which consists in making an 
incision at one of the angles of the eye, then in fasten- 
ing a portion of conjunctiva to it by means of suture, in 
cases where the eyelids are not sufficiently separated, 
owing to an accident or to an arrest in development L 

canthorraphie f. 

canthorrhaphy, suture of the external angle of the eye L 

canthotomie externe f. 

external canthotomy, horizontal section of the com- 
missura palpebrarum lateralis, used to remedy ble- 
pharophimosis M 

canthus m. 

canthus, the corner of the eye M 
commissura palpebrarum L 
See also : grand canthus 
petit canthus 

canthus interne m. 

commissura palpebrarum medialis, the internal canthus 
of the eye M 

capsulaire 

capsular, referable to the capsule of the crystalline lens 
M 

See also : cataracte sous-capsulaire 
pince capsulaire 
sous-capsulaire 

capsule f. 

capsule of the crystalline lens M 
See also : pince a capsule 

capsule cristalline f. 

lens capsule, capsule of the crystalline lens ; the serous 
membrane which envelops the crystalline lens HDT 

capsule de Tenon f. 

Tenon's capsule, the zone of fibroconjunctival tissue 
that separates the posterior pole of the eyeball from the 

37 



orbital fat [Morax incorrectly places an acute accent 
on the e in Tenon] M 

aponeurotic plane which separates the eyesocket into 
two parts : the anterior one occupied by the eyeball ; 
the posterior one occupied by the dependencies of the 
eyeball, fat, vessels, nerves, et cetera [Littre incorrectly 
places an acute accent on the e in Tenon] L 

capsule interne f. 

internal capsule, capsula interna; white strip which 
separates the thalamus opticus and the nucleus cauda- 
tus, on the inside, from the nucleus lentiformis, on the 
outside L 

capsulite f. 

capsulitis; alteration of the lens capsule characterised 
by a slight disturbance, which becomes increasingly 
apparent later, in the field of the pupil, most often 
coinciding with iritis; the same name has been given 
to inflammation of Tenon's capsule, called also 
panophthalmitis or tenonitis L 

capsulo-lenticulaire 

capsulolenticular, referable to the capsule and the 

lens L 

See also : cataracte capsulo-lenticulaire 

capsulo-pupillaire 

capsulopupillary, referable to the capsule of the 
crystalline lens and to the pupil L 
See also : membrane capsulo-pupillaire 
vaisseaux capsulo-pupillaires 

capsulotoniie See : irido-capsulotomie 

caroncule f. 

lachrymal caruncle, caruncula lacrimalis M 

caroncule lacrymale f. 

lachrymal caruncle, caruncula lacrimalis ; the red emi- 
nence at the inner angle of the eye HDT 
small oval or triangular body situated in the inner angle 
of the eye, and covered by a red mucosa, very vascular 
and soft L 

caronculo-palpebral, ale 

carunculopalpebral M 

See also : sillon caronculo-palpebral 

cartilage tarse m. 

tarsal cartilage, palpebral cartilage, tarsal plate of the 
eyelids M 

catablepsie f. 

catablepsia, spasm of lowering of the eyes, downward 
revulsion of the eyes [one of the complications and 
sequelae of epidemic encephalitis] TB 



cataclase f. 

extroversion of the eyelids L 
catadioptrique 

a. which simultaneously produces refraction and re- 
flection of a light ray 
f. the division of optics which studies the combined 
effects of reflection and of refraction HDT 
cataracte f. 

cataract M 

suffusio; opacity placed in the pupillary field between 
the pupil and the vitreous humour in such a way as to 
prevent the light rays from reaching the retina; it is 
located in the crystalline lens, under its capsule or at 
the internal surface of the latter L 
more or less complete opacity of the crystalline lens or 
of its membrane, which impedes vision by intercepting 
the passage of light rays A 
See also : abaissement de la cataracte 
abaisser la cataracte 
abattre la cataracte 
accompagnements de la cataracte 
aiguille a cataracte 
broiement de la cataracte 
couteau a cataracte 
extraction de la cataracte 
operation de la cataracte 
pince a cataracte 
reclinaison de la cataracte 
verres a cataracte 
cataracte a taches disseminees f. 

punctate cataract, a form of soft cataract; it com- 
mences by white dots variously grouped L 
cataracte a trois branches f. 

cataract with three branches, a form of soft cataract L 
cataracte adherente f. 

adherent cataract, a variety of false cataract; here the 
neomembrane has remained adherent to the iris L 
cataracte albuminurique f. 

albuminuric cataract; opacity which sometimes ac- 
companies chronic albuminuria; it is much rarer than 
retinitis of the same origin L 
cataracte aride siliqueuse f. 

aridosiliculose cataract, cataracta aridosiliquata M 
cataracte axiale f. 

axial cataract, fusiform cataract, characterised by a 
grayish stria that appears to unite the anterior pole 
and the posterior pole M 

39 



cataracte barree f. 

barred cataract, a form of soft cataract L 

cataracte branlante f. 

vacillating cataract, in which the crystalline lens 
vacillates behind the pupil L 

cataracte calcaire f. 

calcareous cataract, a form of subcapsular cataract L 

cataracte capsulo-lenticulaire f. 

capsulolenticular cataract; the combination of two 
kinds of cataracts, chiefly characterised by opacities of 
the lens; the latter is nearly always opaque before its 
envelope is L 

cataracte centrale f. 

central cataract, nuclear cataract, in which the nucleus 
is affected and a black spot forms at the centre of the 
pupil M 

cataracte compliquee f. 

complicated cataract, produced by certain diseases of 
the eyeball M 

cataracte congenitale f. 

congenital cataract M 

a rare variety of lenticular opacity, influenced by here- 
dity; it is nearly always soft, often complete from 
birth, or partial and zonular or punctate; it is often 
complicated by arrested development of the ocular 
membranes, by deformation of the eyeball, by nys- 
tagmus, and by disturbances in dentition or the in- 
tellect L 

cataracte cretacee f . 

cretaceous cataract, a form of subcapsular cataract L 

cataracte cystique f. 

cystic cataract, a form of fluid cataract L 

cataracte dehiscente f. 

dehiscent cataract, a form of soft cataract L 

cataracte demi-molle f. 

mixed cataract, semisoft cataract ; it shares the pro- 
perties of hard cataracts and soft cataracts ; the surface 
layer is opaque and soft ; the nucleus is hard, grayish, 
or brownish, and less transparent than in the normal 
state L 

cataracte diabetique f. 

cataracta diabetica, diabetic cataract M 
a cataract which is often soft, rapid in development, 
which appears at the end of diabetes; it is generally 
attributed to the aqueous losses that the crystalline lens 
suffers in order to replace the insufficient water in the 
blood L 

40 



cataracte dure f. 

hard cataract, a variety of true cataract ; it appears only 
after the age of forty ; the centre or nucleus is hard and 
darker than the circumference; its colour, ordinarily 
brown yellow, may be black or green L 

cataracte etoilee f. 

stellate cataract, a form of soft cataract L 

cataracte fausse f. 

false cataract, neomembranous cataract ; it is located at 
the external surface of the lens capsule; it is charac- 
terised by the existence of a membrane produced by the 
inflamed iris L 

cataracte fenetree f. 

fenestrated cataract, a form of soft cataract L 

cataracte fusiforme f. 

fusiform cataract, axial cataract, characterised by a 
grayish stria that appears to unite the anterior pole 
and the posterior pole M 

cataracte glaucomateuse f. 

glaucomatous cataract, which occurs as a complication 
of glaucoma in the last period ; it is generally soft L 

cataracte hyaloi'dienne f. 

hyaloid cataract ; it is supposed to be due to the opacity 
of the anterior layers of the vitreous humour L 

cataracte hypermure f. 

hypermature cataract, overripe cataract, Morgagnian 
cataract M 

cataracte interstitielle f. 

interstitial cataract, a form of fluid cataract L 

cataracte kysteuse f. 

cystic cataract, a form of fluid cataract L 

cataracte laiteuse f. 

milky cataract, a form of fluid cataract L 

cataracte lamellaire f. 

lamellar cataract, a form of soft cataract L 

cataracte liquide f. 

fluid cataract, a variety of true cataract; the capsule 
contains a milk white opaline liquid, with drops and 
granulations of variable form in suspension; in this 
liquid floats the crystalline lens, of normal consistency, 
or hardened, or softened ; its progress is very slow L 

cataracte mixte f. 

mixed cataract, semisoft cataract; it shares the pro- 
perties of hard cataracts and soft cataracts ; the surface 
layer is opaque and soft; the nucleus is hard, grayish, 
or brownish, and less transparent than in the normal 
state L 

41 



cataracte molle f. 

soft cataract, a variety of true cataract; it appears at 
all ages, especially before forty; it includes congenital, 
diabetic, and traumatic cataracts L 

cataracte morgagnienne f. 

Morgagni's cataract, Morgagnian cataract, hyperma- 
ture cataract, overripe cataract M 
a form of fluid cataract L 

cataracte mure f. 

ripe, mature cataract, when all the crystalline fibres 
are degenerated M 

cataract in which all the elements of the crystalline lens 
have become opaque and where the opacity extends to 
the capsule ; ripeness is favourable to, but not indis- 
pensable for, operation by extraction; it is without 
value for other methods of operation L 

cataracte neomembraneuse f. 

false cataract, neomembranous cataract; it is located 
at the external surface of the lens capsule ; it is charac- 
terised by the existence of a membrane produced by the 
inflamed iris L 

cataracte noire f. 

black cataract, so called because of the blackish or 
brownish colour of the crystalline lens extracted M 
amaurosis HDT 
a variety of hard cataract L 

cataracte non adherente f. 

nonadherent cataract, a variety of false cataract; here 
the neomembrane is free, since the posterior synechias 
have yielded to pupillary dilatation L 

cataracte nucleaire f. 

nuclear cataract, central cataract, in which the nucleus 
is affected and a black spot forms at the centre of the 
pupil M 

cataracte ossifiee f. 

ossified cataract, a variety of hard cataract L 

cataracte phosphatique f. 

phosphatic cataract, a form of subcapsular cataract L 

cataracte pierreuse f. 

stony cataract, a variety of hard cataract L 

cataracte platreuse f. 

plaster cataract, a variety of hard cataract L 

cataracte pointillee f. 

punctate cataract, a form of soft cataract ; it commences 
by white dots variously grouped L 

cataracte polaire f. 
polar cataract M 

42 



cataracte polaire anterieure f. 

anterior polar cataract, a spot of intense white occu- 
pying the centre of the pupil M 

cataracte polaire posterieure f. 
posterior polar cataract M 

cataracte pupillaire f. 

pupillary cataract, congenital synizesis ; it occurs when 
the pupillary membrane persists until birth and a child 
is born with complete occlusion of the pupil; it neces- 
sitates the creation of an artificial pupil L 

cataracte pyramidale f. 

pyramidal cataract, characterised by a slight whitish 
projection occupying the centre of the pupil M 
a form of subcapsular cataract L 

cataracte secondaire f. 

cataract following displacement, discission, or extrac- 
tion of the crystalline lens, and constituted by capsule 
debris covered with opaque exudates, or by fragments 
of the crystalline lens, or by neomembranes resulting 
from iritis following the operation L 
secondary cataract M 

cataracte senile f. 

senile cataract M 

cataract which forms under the influence of the ad- 
vances of age, after forty years, by a regressive modi- 
fication of the elements of the crystalline lens ; it is the 
type of hard cataract L 

cataracte sous-capsulaire f. 

subcapsular cataract, a variety of true cataract; some- 
times the opacity results from a perforating ulceration 
of the cornea and is then very limited; calcareous de- 
posits and a degenerescence of the subcapsular epi- 
thelium appear under the iridic surface of the anterior 
capsule in the form of spots, dots, whitish lines, and 
project into the aqueous humour L 

cataracte stratifiee f. 

stratified cataract, a form of soft cataract L 

cataracte striee f. 

striate cataracte, a form of soft cataract L 

cataracte sympathique f. 

sympathetic cataract, primary opacification of the 
crystalline lens without manifest uveal lesions M 

cataracte totale f. 

total cataract, total opacification of the crystalline 
fibres existing from birth M 

43 



cataracte traumatique f. 
traumatic cataract M 

it is always soft and voluminous, ordinarily accom- 
panied by lesions of the other parts of the eyeball; it 
results ordinarily, but not always, from rupture of the 
capsule L 

cataracte vegetante f. 

vegetating cataract, a form of subcapsular cataract L 

cataracte verte f. 
glaucoma HDT 
green cataract, a variety of hard cataract L 

cataracte vraie f. 

true cataract, located in the crystalline lens and within 
or at the internal surface of the capsule L 

cataracte zonulaire f. 

zonular cataract ; a partial opacity of the crystalline lens 
affecting the layers intermediate between the nucleus 
and the peripheral part of the cortical layers, which 
remain perfectly transparent M 

cataracte, ee 

afflicted with cataract M 
See also : malade cataracte 
oeil cataracte 

se cataracter 

to form a cataract M 

catarrhal See: conjonctivite catarrhale 

conjonctivite catarrhale simple 

catoblepsie f. 

catablepsia, abrupt downward deviation of the eyes; it 
usually represents the initial phase of bascule deviation 
(more rarely it forms the terminal phase) [one of the 
complications and sequelae of epidemic encephalitis] B 

cause See: conjonctivite aigue causee par le bacille de 
Pfeiffer 

cavite oculaire f. 

the cavity of the eye, the inside of the eye M 

cavite orbitaire f. 

orbital cavity, orbit, eyesocket ; cavity designed to con- 
tain the organ of sight, situated at the upper part of 
the face, and composed of seven bones L 

cebocephale m. 

cebocephalus ; monster which has the two eyes close 
together but distinct, and whose nasal apparatus is 
atrophied L 

cecite f. 

caecity, blindness, state of a blind person, privation of 
sight ; it is not a disease, but the result of various patho- 

44 



logic states of the eyes, which offer resistance to the 
entrance of light rays, or which deprive the retina of 
the faculty of receiving their impression L 

cecite corticale f. 

cortical caecity, characterised by complete loss of vi- 
sion; it may persist indefinitely or disappear after 
several days M 

cecite crepusculaire f. 

hemeralopia, night blindness M 

cecite hysterique f. 

hysteric caecity, bilateral amaurosis M 

cecite litterale f. 

letter blindness, a form of alexia in which the patient 
does not recognise a single letter M 

cecite musicale f. 

music blindness, which generally accompanies word 
blindness ; the patient can no longer read music L 

cecite psychique f. 

mind blindness, psychic blindness; the subject who 
perceives objects cannot recognise them; he lacks ori- 
entation, is incapable of finding his way M 

cecite verbale f. 

word blindness, a symptom of sensory aphasia ; a speech 
disturbance which makes the reading of words im- 
possible ; a form of alexia in which the patient reco- 
gnises letters but cannot put them into words M 

cecite verbale congenitale f. 

congenital word blindness, produced by a partial con- 
genital lesion of the cortical centres ; the subjects 
afflicted with it are intelligent but find reading diffi- 
cult, although the refraction and the visual acuity are 
normal ; reading of figures, as well as taking dictation 
or copying, may be normal M 

cecite verbale pure f. 

pure word blindness, in which only understanding of 
what one reads is absent ; written words have no sense 
for the patient ; alexia ; it is caused by the destruction 
of the fibres connecting the occipital visual centres 
with the lobule of the gyrus angularis of the left hemi- 
sphere M 

ceinture See : opacite en ceinture 

cellules du cristallin f. 

cells of the crystalline lens, which, according to Robin, 
would form a second layer between the internal surface 
of the anterior lens capsule and the nucleus tubes of 
the crystalline lens; they are generally considered to 
exist solely in the foetus L 

45 



central See: artere centrale 

artere centrale de la retine 
cataracte centrale 
colobome central 
fosse centrale 
leucome central 
scotome central 
veine centrale 

centralis See : fovea centralis 
lutea centralis 

centre cilio-spinal m. 

ciliospinal centre; region of the cervical part of the 
spinal cord from which start the fibres of the sympa- 
thetic nerve which run to the radiating fibres of the 
iris ; it extends from the sixth cervical vertebra to the 
second dorsal one ; galvanic stimulation of the cervical 
cord of the sympathetic causes maximum dilatation of 
the pupil, which, when the excitation ceases, returns 
to its original state, or is even more contracted than 
before the experience L 

centre optique m. 

optic centre; the point which, situated inside of and 
upon the principal axis of a lens, has the property of 
allowing the light rays which traverse it to follow, as 
soon as they leave the lens, their original direction or 
a direction parallel to the latter L 

centre optique de Toeil m. 

optic centre of the eye; the centre of the single re- 
fringent surface which constitutes the dioptre in the 
diagram of the reduced eye L 

centre visuel cortical m. 

cortical visual centre M 

ceratinien (L) See : keratinien 

ceratite (L) See : keratite 

ceratocele (L) See : keratocele 

ceratocone m. 

keratoconus, epithelial staphyloma, in the form of a 
cone or wart L 

ceratonyxis (L) See : keratonyxis 

ceratotome m. (L) See : keratotome 

ceratotomie (L) See : keratotomie 

cercle de diffusion m. 

diffusion circle ; peripheral portion of the image formed 
upon the retina which lacks clearness when the focus 
of the light rays is in front of or in back of the retina, 
which fact renders the images confused L 

46 



cercle peripapillaire m. 

peripapillary circle (part of the posterior segment) M 

cercle senile m. 

arcus senilis ; gerontoxon ; an opacification of the cornea 
parallel to the sclerocorneal limbus ; it is formed by the 
meeting of two semicircles (upper and lower) whose 
edges fuse at the extremities of the horizontal diameter 
of the cornea; it rarely appears before the age of 
fifty M 

cerne m. 

bluish circle which surrounds fatigued or diseased 
eyes HDT 

livid circle that sometimes forms around the eyes when 
they are fatigued (archaic) A 

cerne des yeux m. 

circle under the eyes L 

cerne, ee 

said of the eyes when the eyelids (and especially the 
lower one) are surrounded by a bluish tinge, called 
circle under the eyes L 

chalasie f. 

partial separation of the cornea from the sclerotic, pro- 
duced by a wound or by a hypopyon following acute 
ophthalmia L 

chalaze f. 

synonym of chalazion L 

chalazie incorrect form of chalasie L 

chalazion m. 

chalazion, chronic inflammation of the Meibomian 
glands giving rise to a hard tumour, protuberant under 
the skin of the eyelids or projecting under the tarsal 
conjunctiva M 

inflammatory production occupying the free edge of the 
eyelids, especially of the upper one ; it is single or multi- 
ple, the size of a millet seed or of a bean, transparent 
or reddish, pink, slightly or not at all movable, and 
painless L 

See also : crochet a chalazion 
curette a chalazion 
pince a chalazion 
pince fenetree a chalazion 

chalazion externe m. 

external chalazion, when the chalazion is located in the 
middle part of the upper eyelid and when it projects 
under the skin M 

47 



chalazion interne m. 

internal chalazion, when the chalazion projects under 
the conjunctiva M 

chalazion marginal m. 

marginal chalazion, when the chalazion is located in 
the vicinity of the free edge M 

chambre anterieure f. 
anterior chamber M 

chambres de Toeil f. 

chambers of the eye, spaces in front of and behind the 
eye, containing respectively the aqueous humour and 
the vitreous humour HDT 

champ de Taccomodation m. 

field of accomodation, scale of accomodation, meso- 
ropter of accomodation ; the distance over which we 
can move an object without ceasing to see it distinctly; 
its extent depends on the size of the objects and on the 
power (essentially muscular) of accomodating the eye 
for vision at various distances L 

champ d'une lunette m. 

the portion of space that the eye embraces in looking 
through a glass which makes objects appear close at 
hand HDT 

champ pupillaire m. 

field of the pupil M 

champ visuel m. 

field of vision, visual field ; space limited by the ex- 
treme light rays which, after traversing the pupil, may 
produce impressions on the retina ; it contains a central 
zone, in which vision is distinct, and a peripheral one, 
in which vision is a little more confused; the field of 
vision may be blurred by spots L 

chasse f. 

the mounting of a pair of eyeglasses ; the arched part of 
a spectacle frame which rests upon the nose HDT 

chassie f. 

blearedness ; unctuous and yellowish humour secreted 

upon the edge of each eyelid by the Meibomian 

glands L 

sticky humour secreted upon the edge of the eyelids 

by the ciliary glands HDT 

glutinous humour that accumulates upon the edge of 

the eyelids A 

chassieux, euse 

a. who has blearedness of the eyes A 

referable to the excessive secretion of a sticky 

48 



humour upon the edge of the eyelids by the ciliary 
glands HDT 
s. a person whose eyelids, owing to disease, suffer 
from the excessive secretion of a sticky humour 
by the ciliary glands HDT 
chat See : avoir des yeux de chat 

oeil de chat amaurotique 
chausser ses lunettes 

to put on one's glasses (archaic) HDT 
chemosis m. 

chemosis; oedema of the laminar tissue of the con- 
junctiva : the latter forms a very elevated, red, circular 
swelling around the cornea, which appears as if at the 
bottom of a hole L 

swelling formed by the conjunctiva around the cornea, 
in certain types of ophthalmia HDT 
cheval See : lunettes de cheval 
cheval lunatique m. 

mooneyed horse, a horse affected with periodic oph- 
thalmia (formerly attributed to the action of the 
moon) HDT 
cheval vairon m. 

horse which has the iris of the eye circled with 
white HDT 
choriocapillaire f. 

choriocapillaris M 
chorioretine f. 

chorioretina, the choroid and the retina taken to- 
gether M 
chorioretinien, ienne 
chorioretinal M 

See also : sporotrichose chorioretinienne 
chorioretinite f. 

chorioretinitis M 
choroide 

a. referable to the choroid HDT 

See also : membrane choroide 
f . choroid, chorioid M 

middle membrane of the eye, situated between the 
sclerotic and the retina; in back it has an opening 
for the passage of the optic nerve; in front it con- 
tinues with the iris L 

one of the membranes of the eye ; its inner surface 
has a very dark black coat A 
See also : colobome de la choroide 

49 



choroi'dien, ienne 

choroid, chorioid L 
See also : apoplexie choroidienne 
artere choroidienne 
colobome choroidien 
hemorragie retro-choro'idienne 
retinochoroidien 
retro-choro'idien 
veine choroidienne 
zone choroidienne 

choroi'dite f. 

choroiditis M 

inflammation of the choroid, often concomitant with 
iritis and retinites L 
See also: irido-choroidite purulente 
sclero-choroidite 
sclero-choro'idite posterieure 

choroi'dite atrophique f. 

atrophic choroiditis, sclerochoroiditis ; simultaneous in- 
flammation of the sclerotic and of the choroid, in which 
these membranes become thin and adhere to each other 
without any diseased substance between them L 

choroi'dite congestive f. 

congestive choroiditis; congestion and not inflamma- 
tion of the choroid; it is observed in persons whose 
sight is disturbed whenever an accidental or permanent 
cause sends an afflux of blood toward the brain and 
the face L 

choroi'dite diffuse f. 

diffuse choroiditis M 

choroi'dite disseminee f. 

disseminated choroiditis, diffuse choroiditis ; form of 
inflammation of the choroid remarkable by its gravity 
and by the distribution of its lesions, which are some- 
times atrophic, sometimes exudative; it is observed 
chiefly in myopic eyes or around staphylomata L 

choroi'dite exsudative f. 

exudative choroiditis; a variety of choroiditis found 
particularly in individuals afflicted with syphilis, gout, 
rheumatism, or in the course of serious diseases, main- 
ly meningitic ones in children L 

choroi'dite maculaire f. 

macular choroiditis M 

choroi'dite metastatique f. 

metastatic choroiditis, infectious ocular localisation dur- 
ing a local or general infection whose portal of entry 

50 



is remote from the eye but whose agent is transmitted 
through the blood M 
choroi'dite myopique f. 

myopic choroiditis, choroiditis complicating myopia M 
choroi'dite purulente f. 

purulent choroiditis; it follows an accidental or sur- 
gical traumatism and always brings grave symptoms, 
sometimes the complete abolition of sight in several 
days L 
choroi'dite syphilitique f. 

choroiditis referable to syphilis M 
choroi'dite tuberculeuse f. 

choroiditis referable to tuberculosis M 
chromatique See : dyschromatopsie chromatique 
sens chromatique 
sensibilite chromatique 
chromatodysopsie f. 

chromatodysopsia ; state of colour blind persons who 
perceive white, yellow, blue, and black, but have diffi- 
culty in distinguishing the various nuances, and see the 
complementary colours abnormally L 
chromatopseudopsie f. 
. chromatopseudopsis ; case of colour blindness where 
several colours — such as light brown, dark green, dark 
red — are distinguished only as nuances of the same 
colour : there is confusion of several simple colours L 
chromopsie f. 

chromopsia, chromatopsia; state in which one sees 
colourless objects as coloured L 
chromoptometre m. 

chromoptometer, apparatus serving to measure dys- 
chromatopsia and achromatopsia L 
chronique See : conjonctivite chronique 

dacryocystite suppuree chronique 
glaucome chronique 
chute de la paupiere f. 

blepharoptosis ; complete or incomplete drooping of the 
upper eyelid in front of the eyeball L 
cicatriciel See : blepharophimosis cicatriciel 
ectropion cicatriciel 
entropion cicatriciel 
strabisme cicatriciel 
xerosis cicatriciel 

ciel See : regard au ciel 

51 



cil m. 

eyelash, cilium (plural == cilia) ; the hair upon the free 
edge of the eyelids in mammals HDT 
the hair of the eyelids A 
ciliaire 

ciliary, referable to the cilia M 
furnished with eyelashes HDT 
See also : acne ciliaire 

arteres ciliaires posterieures 

blepharite ciliaire 

bord ciliaire 

canal ciliaire de Schlemm 

corps ciliaire 

folliculite ciliaire 

ganglion ciliaire 

irido-ciliaire 

marge ciliaire 

muscle ciliaire 

nerfs ciliaires 

nerfs ciliaires courts 

nerfs ciliaires directs 

nerfs ciliaires longs 

ophtalmie ciliaire 

optico-ciliaire 

orgeolet ciliaire 

plexus ciliaire 

poliose ciliaire 

proces ciliaires 

section du muscle ciliaire 

sol ciliaire 

staphylome du corps ciliaire 

vaisseaux ciliaires anterieurs 

veines ciliaires 

zone ciliaire 
ciliaires f. 

ciliary arteries L 
ciliairotomie f. 

ciliarotomy M 
cilie, ee 

ciliated, whose edge is furnished with cilia L 
cilio-retinien, ienne 
cilioretinal M 
See also : arteres cilio-retiniennes 

vaisseaux cilio-retiniens 
cilio-scleral, ale 

cilioscleral M 
cilio-spinal See : centre cilio-spinal 

52 



cillement m. 

action of winking the eyes HDT 
action of winking, said only of the eyes and of the eye- 
lids A 

rapid and repeated winking ; involuntary movement by 
which the eyelids open and close continually and rapid- 
ly ; sometimes it is merely a rapid succession of untime- 
ly tremblings of the orbicular muscle of the eyelids L 

ciller 

to shut and to open the eyes and eyelids in an instant ; 
when intransitive, it is said only of horses and means : 
to begin to have some white hairs at the eyelids, above 
the eyes A 

to shut the eyes rapidly by bringing the eyelashes close 
together; properly, to furnish with eyelashes (used 
only in the expression "A horse is growing eyelashes", 
and, intransitively, "One who grows gray", in which 
white hairs appear toward the orbital arch when he 
ages) HDT 

cillose f. 

eillosis, constant quivering of the upper eyelid L 

cils devies m. 

deviated cilia M 

circine See : retinite circinee 

cirsophtalmie f. 

cirsophthalmia, varicose ophthalmia; ophthalmia in 
which the vessels of the conjunctiva are dilated and 
varicose L 

clairiere See : alopecie en clairiere 

clairvoyance f. 

faculty of discerning clearly with the eyes (rare) HDT 

clairvoyant, ante 

who knows how to discern clearly with the eyes HDT 

Claude Bernard See : syndrome de Claude Bernard-Horner 

clignement m. 

winking, blinking M 

action of winking the eyes, ordinarily said of a bad 

habit of winking the eyes A 

movement by which the eyelids are drawn toward each 

other, in such a way as to leave but very little space 

between them, to protect the eye from too strong a 

light or to perceive distant objects more readily L 

clignement palpebral m. 

winking or blinking of the eyelids M 

cligner 

to wink, to blink M 

to shut one eye, to half shut the eyes in order to di- 

53 



minish the impression of too strong a light, or to look 
at very small objects A 

clignotant, ante 

which winks or blinks HDT 
See also : corps clignotant 

membrane clignotante 

clignotement m. 

winking, blinking M 

repeated or habitual blinking of the eyes HDT 
rapid and repeated winking ; involuntary movement by 
which the eyelids open and close continually and rapid- 
ly; sometimes it is merely a rapid succession of un- 
timely tremblings of the orbicular muscle of the eye- 
lids L 

involuntary movement which makes one move the eye- 
lids continually A 

clignoter 

to blink or wink the eyes frequently HDT 

to move and to lower the eyelids frequently, without 

interruption A 

clin m. 

wink, rapid movement of the eyelid which one lowers 
and raises at the same instant A 

clonique See : blepharospasme clonique 

Cloquet See: canal de Cloquet 

clou de Scarpa m. 

Scarpa's probe; small lead cylinder, one end of which 
is like the head of a nail, which one places in the nasal 
canal to keep it dilated, after incision of the lachrymal 
sac L 

coeloma m. 

transparent ulcer of the cornea L 

coin de l'oeil m. 

the corner of the eye HDT 

colle See: oeil colle 

collyre m. 

collyrium (plural = collyria), eyewash, eyesalve M 
any kind of local medicament applied upon the eye or 
rather upon the conjunctiva ; there are dry, soft, liquid, 
and gaseous collyria L 

colmatage m. 

the late Professor Felix Lagrange, on page 436 of the 
fourth edition of his "Precis d'ophtalmologie", states 
that "colmatage du segment anterieur" consists in dis- 
section of the conjunctiva throughout the interlying re- 
gion and cauterisation, with a flat galvanocautery, of 
all this bloody part from the limbus to the insertion of 

54 



the muscles; the conjunctiva above the part cauterised 
is then replaced; the principal result of this process is 
that it raises the tension of the eye ; this operation is to 
hypotonia what fistulisation of the eye is to hyper- 
tonia; Lagrange adds injections of salt water around 
the eyeball to produce, in the equatorial and posterior 
regions of the eye, an inflammatory reaction followed 
by the formation of fibrous tissue; "colmatage" is thus 
completed Lagrange 

this "banking" was introduced in 1912 by La- 
grange ; by obliterating the anterior filtrant sur- 
face it bars the excretion of the aqueous humour, 
which, by its forced retention inside of the eyeball, 
raises the ocular tension ; the word "calfeutrage" better 
shows how this operation acts, for the literal meaning 
of "calfeutrer" is to stop up chinks or joints hermetically; 
Professor Lagrange would like to see "calfeutrer" re- 
place "colmater", which is less precise Pesme 

colmater 

to perform "colmatage", q. v. Pesme 

colobome m. 

coloboma ; fissure of the upper eyelid, of the choroid, of 
the retina, and especially of the iris, by teratologic per- 
sistence of the slit at the lower part of the iris at birth 
and during the first stages of development L 
See also : blepharo-colobome 

colobome central m. 

central or macular coloboma of the choroid, the type 
limited to a central zone including the macula and lo- 
cated at the posterior pole M 

colobome choroidien m. 

coloboma of the choroid M 

colobome cristallinien m. 

coloboma of the crystalline lens, a malformation char- 
acterised by the presence of a depression of the crystal- 
line edge M 

colobome de la choroide m. 

coloboma of the choroid M 

colobome de Tiris m. 

coloboma iridis, iridocoloboma M 

colobome du plancher oculaire m. 

coloboma of the zone between the pupil and the lower 
edge of the choroid; typical coloboma, one of the two 
main types of coloboma of the choroid M 

colobome du sourcil m. 

coloboma of the eyebrow, an interruption in the line of 
the eyebrow generally corresponding with the middle 

55 



region and coinciding with an analogous anomaly in 
development of the upper eyelid M 

colobome irien m. 

coloboma iridis, iridocoloboma M 

colobome maculaire m. 

central or macular coloboma of the choroid, the type 
limited to a central zone including the macula and lo- 
cated at the posterior pole M 

colobome palpebral m. 

coloboma palpebrale, a V-shaped notch whose base is 
turned toward the free edge and whose angles are 
rounded; its most frequent site is the upper eyelid; it 
may be single, double, or bilateral M 

colobome typique m. 

typical coloboma, one of the two main types of colo- 
boma of the choroid; coloboma of the zone between 
the pupil and the lower edge of the choroid M 

colore See: conserves colorees 

commissure des paupieres f. 

commissura palpebrarum, angle formed where the eye- 
lids meet, corner of the eye L 

commissure externe f. 

commissura palpebrarum lateralis, the external canthus 
of the eye M 

commissure interne f. 

commissura palpebrarum medialis, the internal canthus 
of the eye M 

commissure temporale f. 

commissura palpebrarum lateralis M 

commotion de la retine f . 

commotio retinae, Berlin's disease, a milky opacity at 
the posterior pole causing diminution in visual acuity 
following contusion of the eyeball M 

commun See : moteur oculaire commun 

nerf oculo-moteur commun 
oculo-moteur commun 

compere-loriot m. 

small yellow pustule which appears at the edge of the 
eyelid HDT 
stye, hordeolum M 
complet See: achromatope complet 
hemianopsie complete 
complique See : cataracte compliquee 
compose See : astigmatisme compose 

astigmatisme myopique compose 

56 



compte-gouttes m. 

dropper, a small glass tube with a rubber bulb at one 
end, used for instillation of eyewashes M 
concave See : concavo-concave 

verre concave 
concavo-concave 

concavoconcave, said of a spectacle lens both of whose 
surfaces are concave L 
concavo-convexe 

concavoconvex, said of a spectacle lens which is concave 
on one side and convex on the other L 
concomitant See: strabisme concomitant 
conduit lacrymal m. 

lachrymal duct, ductus lacrimalis; there are two 
lachrymal ducts, one upper and the other lower, which 
form the continuation of the lachrymal points and 
which are separated by the caruncle L 
conduit naso-lacrymal m. 

canalis nasolacrimal, lachrymal canal W 
cone retinien m. 

retinal cone; the retinal cones have the same general 
arrangement as the rods ; their internal segment is 
swollen; they do not contain any rhodopsin L 
conforme See : astigmatisme conforme a la regie 
congenital See : amaurose congenitale 
amblyopic congenitale 
cataracte congenitale 
cecite verbale congenitale 
hypermetropic congenitale 
nystagmus congenital 
ptosis congenital 
synizesis congenitale 
congestif See : amblyopic congestive 
choro'idite congestive 
retinite congestive 
conicite pellucide de la cornee f. 

transparent staphyloma; convexity of the cornea dis- 
tended by the aqueous humour without the loss of its 
transparency L 
conique See : cornee conique 
conjonctival, ale 

conjunctival, referable to the conjunctiva M 
See also: cul-de-sac conjonctival 

cysticerque sous-conjonctival 
diphterie conjonctivale 
ecchymose sous-conjonctivale 
epithelium conjonctival 

57 



glandes sous-conjonctivales 

granulations conjonctivales 

injection conjonctivale 

lipome sous-conjonctival 

lithiase conjonctivale 

lupus conjonctival 

oculo-conjonctival 

palpebro-conjonctival 

sac conjonctival 

sous-conjonctival 

tissu conjonctival 

tuberculose conjonctivale 
conjonctive f. 

conjunctiva ; the mucous membrane that covers the an- 
terior segment of the eyeball, the posterior surface of 
the eyelids, and continues with the corneal epithelium 
and with the skin at the level of the free edge of the 
eyelids M 

mucous membrane which unites the eyeball to the eye- 
lids, lining the internal surface of the eyelids (palpebral 
conjunctiva) and the eyeball (ocular conjunctiva) as 
far as the circumference of the transparent cornea; it 
continues in the lachrymal canals to the orifice of the 
lachrymal points L 
See also : pterygo'ide de la conjonctive 

sporotrichose primitive de la conjonctive 

syphilis de la conjonctive 

tuberculose de la conjonctive 
conjonctive bulbaire f. 

bulbar conjunctiva, ocular conjunctiva M 
conjonctive oculaire f. 

ocular conjunctiva, bulbar conjunctiva; it is smooth, 
less sensitive than the palpebral conjunctiva, with 
larger capillaries, and forming wider meshes ; it is loose- 
ly united to the sclerotic and adheres firmly around the 
cornea, where it stops L 

conjonctive palpebrale f. 

palpebral conjunctiva, tarsal conjunctiva; it is com- 
posed of a very vascular chorion ; at the tarsus it has 
large irregular papillae, visible with the naked eye, 
which give it a wrinkled aspect (vascular papillae) L 

conjonctive tarsienne f. 

tarsal conjunctiva, palpebral conjunctiva M 

conjonctivite f. 

conjunctivitis, inflammation of the conjunctiva L 
inflammation of the conjunctival mucous membrane 

58 



evincing abnormal vascularisation accompanied by exu- 
dation M 
See also: blepharo-conjonctivite 

blepharo-conjonctivite morbilleuse 
pseudo-conjonctivite du nouveau-ne 
sclero-conjonctivite 

conjonctivite a diplobacilles f. 

subacute conjunctivitis, an infection caused by a special 
diplobacillus ; it is contagious, nearly always bilateral, 
and most often chronic ; the causative diplobacillus is 
called the diplobacillus of subacute conjunctivitis and 
also the Morax diplobacillus M 

conjonctivite a inclusions f. 

conjunctivitis in which the epithelium of the inflamed 
mucous membrane of the eye contains corpuscular ele- 
ments analogous to those described in trachoma M 

conjonctivite a pneumoeoques f. 

conjunctivitis caused by pneumococci M 

conjonctivite a streptocoques f. 

conjunctivitis caused by streptococci; there are two 
forms, the lachrymal and the grave M 

conjonctivite aigue causee par le bacille de Pfeiffer £. 

acute conjunctivitis caused by Pfeiffer's bacillus; this 
form resembles acute contagious conjunctivitis, but its 
development is swifter M 

conjonctivite aigue contagieuse f. 

acute contagious conjunctivitis, caused by the Weeks 
bacillus M 

conjonctivite angulaire f. 

angular conjunctivitis, in which palpebral erythema at- 
tacks the commissurae particularly M 

conjonctivite blennorragique f. 

gonorrhoeal conjunctivitis, caused by the local pro- 
liferation of the gonococcus ; infection of the ocular mu- 
cous membrane may occur in two ways, giving rise 
to two distinct clinical types : exogenous infection, and 
endogenous infection M 

gonorrhoeal ophthalmia ; acute ophthalmia produced by 
the direct contact of the conjunctiva with pus from 
blennorrhagic discharge L 

conjonctivite blennorragique metastatique f. 

gonorrhoeal conjunctivitis by metastasis ; rheumatismal 
ophthalmia of Fournier, as opposed to contagious oph- 
thalmia; its origin is endogenous, and it often appears 
at the same time as diseases of the joints M 

conjonctivite catarrhale f. 

catarrhal conjunctivitis, mucopurulent conjunctivitis M 

59 



conjonctivite catarrhale simple f. 

simple catarrhal conjunctivitis, characterised by a blood- 
shot condition of the membrane and by a swelling in 
proportion to the intensity of the redness; there is a 
sensation of heaviness and of heat in the eye and the 
eyelids, and of a foreign body between the latter; a 
little purulent mucus accumulates at the edge of the 
eyelids L 

conjonctivite chronique f. 

chronic conjunctivitis M 

conjonctivite de Parinaud L 

Parinaud's conjunctivitis, an infectious disease charac- 
terised by the development of vegetative elevations 
upon the thickened mucous membrane of the tarsus 
and of the culdesac and by a polyganglionic adeno- 
pathy M 

conjonctivite des nouveau-nes f. 
ophthalmia neonatorum L 

conjonctivite diphterique f. 

diphtheritic conjunctivitis; it may be independent of 
any other manifestation of diphtheria; it often ac- 
companies nasal diphtheria M 

conjonctivite diphteritique f. 

diphtheritic conjunctivitis, diphtheritic ophthalmia; 
ophthalmia characterised by the presence of a pseudo- 
membrane at the surface of and right through the con- 
junctiva; it develops particularly in children from two 
to six years old L 

conjonctivite dysenterique f. 

conjunctivitis referable to dysentery, conjunctivitis pro- 
duced during bacillary dysentery M 

conjonctivite folliculaire f. 

follicular conjunctivitis, characterised by the presence 
of numerous follicles upon the conjunctiva M 

conjonctivite gonococcique f. 

gonorrhoeal conjunctivitis, a severe form caused by in- 
fection with gonococci M 

conjonctivite granuleuse f. 

granular conjunctivitis, trachoma M 

conjonctivite impetigineuse f. 

conjunctivitis referable to impetigo (improperly called 
phlyctenular conjunctivitis) M 

conjonctivite lacrymale a pneumocoques des nouveau-nes f. 
pneumococcic lachrymal conjunctivitis of the newborn, 
described by Parinaud ; it begins from the eighth to the 
twelfth day after birth M 

60 



conjonctivite lacrymale a streptocoques f. 

lachrymal conjunctivitis caused by streptococci M 

conjonctivite lacrymale du nouveau-ne f. 

lachrymal conjunctivitis of the newborn, an inflamma- 
tory obstruction of the lachrymal canal which starts 
about the seventh or tenth day and is accompanied by 
conjunctivitis and by coryza M 

conjonctivite muco-purulente f. 

catarrhal conjunctivitis, mucopurulent conjunctivitis M 

conjonctivite non gonococcique du nouveau-ne f. 

nongonorrhoeal conjunctivitis of the newborn; it ap- 
pears from the second to the tenth day after birth; 
the epithelium of the conjunctival surface contains 
"inclusions" identical with the "inclusion" of initial 
trachoma M 

conjonctivite oculo-palpebrale f. 

oculopalpebral conjunctivititis ; blepharoconjunctivitis ; 
simultaneous inflammation of the eyelids and of the 
conjunctiva L 

conjonctivite palpebrale f. 
Same as preceding entry 

conjonctivite papuleuse f. 

papular, phlyctenular, pustular, or scrofulous con- 
junctivitis ; redness of the ocular conjunctiva, wider 
at the circumference of the eye and with the summit 
turned toward the eyelid, ending in a papula, pustule, 
or phlyctena the size of a millet seed or a hemp seed ; 
this disease is most often a manifestation of scurvy L 

conjonctivite phlyctenulaire f. 

phlyctenular conjunctivitis (the improper name of con- 
junctivitis referable to impetigo) M 
papular, phlyctenular, pustular, or scrofulous con- 
junctivitis; redness of the ocular conjunctiva, wider at 
the circumference of the eye and with the summit 
turned toward the eyelid, ending in a papula, pustule, 
or phlyctena the size of a millet seed or a hemp seed; 
this disease is most often a manifestation of scurvy L 

conjonctivite printaniere f. 

spring conjunctivitis, vernal conjunctivitis; there are 
two principal forms, the limbic and the tarsal M 

conjonctivite purulente f. 

purulent conjunctivitis M 

conjonctivite pustuleuse f. 

papular, phlyctenular, pustular, or scrofulous con- 
junctivitis; redness of the ocular conjunctiva, wider at 
the circumference of the eye and with the summit 
turned toward the eyelid, ending in a papula, pustule, 

61 



or phlyctena the size of a millet seed or a hemp seed; 
this disease is most often a manifestation of scurvy L 

conjonctivite rubeolique £. 

conjunctivitis referable to measles M 

conjonctivite scrofuleuse f. 

papular, phlyctenular, pustular, or scrofulous con- 
junctivitis ; redness of the ocular conjunctiva, wider at 
the circumference of the eye and with the summit 
turned toward the eyelid, ending in a papula, pustule, 
or phlyctena the size of a millet seed or a hemp seed; 
this disease is most often a manifestation of scurvy L 

conjonctivite subaigue f. 

subacute conjunctivitis, an infection caused by a special 
diplobacillus ; it is contagious, nearly always bilateral, 
and most often chronic; the causative diplobacillus is 
called the diplobacillus of subacute conjunctivitis and 
also the Morax diplobacillus M 

conjonctivite subaigue diplobacillaire f. 

subacute conjunctivitis caused by the diplobacillus M 

conjonctivite syphilitique f. 

syphilitic conjunctivitis (rare) M 

conjonctivite tarsienne f. 

conjunctivitis of the tarsus, tarsal conjunctivitis M 

conjonctivite vaccinale f. 

vaccinal conjunctivitis, a very rare disease in which the 
vaccine is carried to the eyes by the fingers ; contagion 
occurs on the day of vaccination M 

conjonctivo-palpebral, ale 

conjunctivopalpebral M 

conjugue See : deviation conjuguee de la tete et des yeux 

consecutif See : image consecutive 

consensuel See : reaction consensuelle 
reflexe consensuel 

conserver ses lunettes 

to keep on one's glasses ; not to remove one's glasses, as 
a matter of precaution HDT 

conserves colorees f. 

coloured glasses, dark glasses ; they are used to mitigate 
the effect of light in cases of photophobia, congestion, 
and inflammation of the eye L 

contagieux See: conjonctivite aigue contagieuse 

contraction orbiculaire f. 

contraction of the orbicular muscle of the eye M 

contraction pupillaire f. 

contraction of the pupil M 
contraire See : astigmatisme contraire a la regie 

62 



conus inferieur m. 

inferior conus, a crescent bordering the papilla; it dif- 
fers only by its lower site from a myopic crescent M 

convergence f. 

convergence, accomodation M 
See also: asthenopie de convergence 
reflexe de convergence 
reflexe pupillaire a la convergence 

convergent, ente 

convergent, refreable to convergence or accomoda- 
tion M 
See also : strabisme convergent 

convexe See : concavo-convexe 
verre convexe 

coque oculaire f. 

sclerotic, white of the eye M 

coque sclerale f. 

scleral envelope M 

core f. 

pupil L 

coreclise f. 

coreclisis, occlusion of the pupil L 

corectasie f. 

corectasis, dilatation of the pupil L 

corectomie f. 

corectomy, iridectomy ; excision of a portion of the iris 
in order to establish an artificial pupil L 

corectopie f. 

corectopia; anomalous situation of the pupil, which is 
near the edge of the cornea, instead of occupying its 
centre L 

coredialyse f. 

coredialysis, iridodialysis ; detachment of a portion of 
the external zone of the iris, practised at its point of 
attachment to the ciliary ligament in order to produce 
an artificial pupil, situated at the edge of the cornea, 
between the ciliary ligament and the detached edge 
of the iris L 

corediastase f. 

corediastasis, dilatation of the pupil L 

corediastole f. 

corediastole, dilatation of the pupil L 

corelysis f. 

corelysis ; operation done to free the pupil from its adhe- 
sions to an adjacent part L 

coremorphose f. 

coremorphosis, artificial pupil operation L 

63 



coreometre m. 

coreometer, instrument for measuring the dimensions 
of the pupil L 

coreparelcyse f. 

coreparelcysis ; method of making an artificial pupil 
which consists, when the cornea is partly obscured, in 
elongating the pupil toward the transparent part of this 
membrane, and, in order to keep it thus elongated, in 
fastening the edge of the iris in the incision made in the 
cornea L 

corephtisie f. 

corephthisis, habitual stricture of the pupil L 

coretomedialyse f. 

corectomedialysis, iridectomedialysis, iridotomome- 
dialysis; method of making an artificial pupil which 
consists in detaching and in excising a part of the ex- 
ternal zone of the iris L 

coretomie f. 

coretomy, iridotomy; method of making an artificial 
pupil which consists in making a single or multiple in- 
cision of the iris with a lancet cataract knife, a needle, 
or scissors, through the cornea or through the sclera L 

corneal, ale 

corneal, which concerns the cornea L 
See also: tissu corneal 

cornee f. 

cornea, cornea tunica ; the thickest of the ocular tunics, 
so named because it bears some resemblance to horn; 
in former times a distinction was made between the 
cornea opaca (now called the sclerotic), and the 
transparent cornea, or cornea proper (cornea pellucida) L 
See also : conicite pellucide de la cornee 
opacite de la cornee 
paracentese de la cornee 
tache de la cornee 
taches metalliques de la cornee 
tatouage de la cornee 
trouble de la cornee 

cornee conique f. 

keratoconus, characterised by a conic deformation of 
the cornea in which the deformation is more marked at 
the centre than at the periphery of this membrane ; it 
most often begins between the ages of twelve and 
thirty M 

cornee opaque f. 

cornea opaca, sclerotic, white of the eye HDT 

64 



cornee transparente £. 

clear cornea, transparent cornea, cornea proper, cornea 
pellucida; it is circular, transparent, and occupies the 
anterior sixth of the eyeball L 

the small circular membrane set in the middle of the 
sclerotic, transparent to rays of light HDT 

corneen, enne 

corneal, referable to the cornea M 
See also : angle irido-corneen 

astigmatisme corneen 

astigmatisme corneen anterieur 

courbure corneenne 

irido-corneen 

lames corneennes 

limbe sclero-corneen 

nerfs corneens 

opacite corneenne 

sclero-corneen 

tissu corneen 

vascularisation corneenne 

corneite f. 

keratitis L 

corps See : cysticerque du corps vitre 

staphylome du corps ciliaire 

corps ciliaire m. 

corpus ciliare, ciliary body, corona ciliaris, ciliary 
crown of the choroid, zona ciliaris; radiating crown 
formed behind the iris by the ciliary processes taken 
together L 
See also : staphylome du corps ciliaire 

corps clignotant m. 

third eyelid ; semitransparent membrane which, in birds, 
is placed vertically at the inner angle of the eye, be- 
tween the eyeball and the eyelids, and which the animal 
draws at will like a curtain to protect itself from the 
light ; in human beings the winking membrane is repre- 
sented by the plica semilunaris conjunctivae L 

corps cristallin m. 

crystalline lens ; the transparent lenticular body situated 
in the eyeball, behind the pupil, and designed to re- 
fract the rays of light to make them converge upon 
the retina HDT 

corps genicule m. 

corpus geniculatum, geniculate body L 

corps genouille m. 

corpus geniculatum, geniculate body M 

65 



corps genouille externe m. 

corpus geniculatum laterale, external geniculate 

body M 
corps genouille interne m. 

corpus geniculatum mediate, internal geniculate body L 
corps phacoi'de m. 

name sometimes given to the crystalline lens because 

of its lenticular form L 
corps vitre m. 

vitreous humour, vitreous body, vitreous M 

a transparent gelatinous mass behind the crystalline 

lens ; it is the most voluminous of the media of the eye, 

of which it fills the two posterior thirds L 

See also : cysticerque du corps vitre 
correcteur See : verres correcteurs 
corrugateur m. 

corrugator supercilii, ' the muscle whose contraction 

wrinkles the eyebrow HDT 

See also : muscle corrugateur 
cortical See : cecite corticale 

centre visuel cortical 
cote See : deviation spasmodique du regard a un cote 
coup d'oeil m. 

rapid look, glance HDT 
courbure See : ametropie de courbures 
courbure corneenne f. 

curvature of the cornea M 
court See : nerfs ciliaires courts 

vue courte 
coussinet oculaire m. 

eye cushion ; the mass of adipose tissue which, in the 

horse, surrounds the posterior surface of the eye HDT 
couteau a cataracte m. 

cataract knife, keratotome, keratome ; name given to 

various instruments for incising the cornea pellucida 

during cataract extraction L 
couteau a iridotomie m. 

iridotomy knife; Beer's lancet-shaped, double edged 

knife L 

couteau de De Graefe m. 

de Graefe's knife, de Graefe's keratotome ; very narrow 
bistouri, about 3J/2 centimetres long, with one cutting 
edge, the other edge blunt, and a tempered point; it is 
used in iridectomy, in linear extraction combined with 
iridectomy, and even in resection of a large piece with- 
out iridectomy, for which Beer's keratome was formerly 
reserved L 

66 



couteaux a iridectomie m. 

iridectomy knives ; 1- Beer's two knives ; one is straight, 
with a short and wide blade, double edged, with a 
highly tempered point; the other has a blade that is 
similar, but with the flat part bent; 2- or de Graefe's 
keratotomy knife L 

crepusculaire See: cecite crepusculaire 

cretace See : cataracte cretacee 

creux See : yeux creux 

crible See : lame criblee 

crinal m. 

instrument used in former times to compress a lach- 
rymal fistula; one of its ends was fitted with a small 
cushion of horsehair L 

crise oculogyre de laterality f. 

parablepsia, spasmodic deviation of the gaze to one 
side, lateral oculogyric spasm [one of the complications 
and sequelae of epidemic encephalitis] TB 

crises anobleptiques f. 

attacks of anablepsia, upward displacement — ordinarily 
abrupt — of both eyeballs [one of the complications 
and sequelae of epidemic encephalitis] RR2 

crises des superogyres f. 
Same as preceding entry 

crises oculogyres f. 

oculogyric attacks, tonic eye fits, the appearance of 
ocular paroxysms, oculogyric spasmodic disturbances, 
attacks of rotation of the eyes [one of the complications 
and sequelae of epidemic encephalitis] TB 

cristallin 

a. referable to the crystalline lens HDT 
See also : capsule cristalline 

corps cristallin 

lentille cristalline 
m. crystalline lens, formed by a stratification of 
lamellar cells contained in the lens capsule; 
lens M 

lens crystallina; lenticular body placed between 
the aqueous humour and the vitreous humour, 
where the two posterior thirds of the eye meet its 
anterior third, and kept in this position by the hya- 
loid membrane; the diameter of this biconvex 
lens is 9 to 10 millimetres and it is Ay 2 to 5 milli- 
metres thick in the adult L 
See also: abaissement du cristallin 

abaisser le cristallin 

cellules du cristallin 

67 



extraction du cristallin 
luxation du cristallin 
tube du cristallin 
cristalline f. 

crystallin, the substance proper of the crystalline lens ; 

see also crystalline L 
cristallinien, ienne 

crystalline, referable to the crystalline lens M 

See also : appareil cristallinien 

astigmatisme cristallinien 
colobome cristallinien 
myopie cristallinienne 
cristalloi'de f. 

capsule of the crystalline lens, lens capsule M 
cristalloi'de anterieure f. 

anterior capsule of the crystalline lens, anterior lens 

capsule M 
cristalloi'de posterieure f. 

posterior capsule of the crystalline lens, posterior lens 

capsule M 
cristalloidite f. 

supposed inflammation of the crystalline lens or of its 

capsule L 
crithe f. 

stye, hordeolum L 
crochet a chalazion m. 

chalazion hook M 
crochet a strabisme m. 

strabismus hook M 
croise See : diplopie croisee 

hemianopsie croisee 
croissant See : scotome en croissant 
croissant myopique m. 

myopic crescent M 
cryptogamique See : blepharite cryptogamique 
cryptophtalmie f. 

cryptophthalmus, a term designating cases where the 

skin of the forehead directly continues with that of the 

cheek and bears merely a depression as vestige of the 

palpebral aperture M 

absence of the eyeball, the vestige of which is a small 

sac lined by a mucosa covered with a fibrous membrane 

in which muscles are inserted L 
crystalline f. 

crystallin, the substance proper of the crystalline lens ; 

it is an organic substance, semisolid naturally, co- 
agulating at about 75°; it is soluble in water, when it 

68 



coagulates at a higher temperature than albumin does, 
but at a temperature lower than the one which pre- 
cipitates globulin; this substance is found only in the 
crystalline lens, which contains 35% of it (Berze- 
lius) L 

crystalloide f. (L) See: cristalloide 

cul-de-sac m. (Plural = culs-de-sac) 
cul-de-sac, culdesac M 

cul-de-sac conjunctival m. 
conjunctival culdesac M 

cul-de-sac inferieur m. 
lower culdesac M 

cul-de-sac superieur m. 
upper culdesac M 

cul-de-verre m. 

"bottom of a glass", a greenish spot in the eye of 
horses threatened with cataract HDT 
opacity of the crystalline lens of a horse, the forerunner 
of a cataract A 

curette a chalazion f. 

chalazion curette M 

cyclite f. 

cyclitis ; a rather rare form of choroiditis, limited to 
the ciliary circle L 

cyclocephale m. 

cyclocephalus ; a monster which has a single eyesocket, 
containing both eyes contiguous or a double eye occu- 
pying the median line, whose nasal apparatus is atro- 
phied, and which has no tube L 

cyclocephaliens m. 

cyclocephali ; family of monsters in which the nasal 
apparatus is more or less atrophied, and whose eyes, 
imperfectly conformed or rudimentary, are close to- 
gether, or are blended at the median line L 

cyclodialyse f. 

cyclodialysis M 

cyclope m. 

cyclops; name given, in former times, to cyclocephalic 
monsters whose two eyes combine to form a single 
eye L 

cyclopie f. 

cyclopia, state resulting from the complete fusion of 
the two eyes (cyclocephalic monsters) L 

cyclopien m. 

cyclops; name given, in former times, to cyclocephalic 
monsters whose two eyes combine to form a single 
eye L 



cyclotome m. 

cyclotome; unused instrument designed to hold the 

eyeball fast and at the same time to incise the cornea, 

in cataract operation L 
cylindro-spherometre m. 

cylindrospherometer, an instrument to determine the 

curvature of lenses in spectacles M 
cysticerque du corps vitre m. 

cysticercus of the vitreous humour M 
cysticerque sous-conjonctival m. 

subconjunctival cysticercus M 
cystique See : cataracte cystique 
cystitome m. (L) See: kystitome 
cystitomie f. (L) See : kystitomie 



dacryadenalgie f. 

dacryadenalgia, pain in the lachrymal gland L 

dacryadenite f. 

dacryoadenitis, dacryadenitis ; inflammation of the 
lachrymal gland; acute dacryadenitis is rarer than 
chronic inflammation L 

dacryagogue 

a. which conducts the tears 
s. tear duct L 

dacryelcose f. 

dacryelcosis, ulceration of the tear ducts L 

dacryoadenite f. 

dacryoadenitis, dacryadenitis M 

dacryoadenite aigue f. 

acute dacryoadenitis, acute inflammation of the palpe- 
bral or orbital lachrymal gland or of both simultane- 
ously M 

dacryocystite f. 

dacryocystitis; inflammation of the tear sac L 
See also : peridacryocystite 

dacryocystite lacrymale a streptocoques f. 

lachrymal dacryocystitis caused by streptococci, strep- 
tococcic infection propagated through the mucous 
membrane (veritable phlegmon of the lachrymal sac) M 

dacryocystite suppuree chronique f. 

chronic suppurated dacryocystitis M 

70 



dacryocystoblennorrhee f. 

dacryocystoblennorrhoea ; mucous discharge through 

the tear sac L 
dacryocystoptose f. 

dacryocystoptosis ; slackening of the tear sac L 
dacryohemorragie f. 

dacryohaemorrhage ; haemorrhage through the tear 

ducts L 
dacryoline f. 

dacryolin, mucus of the tears ; the organic substance of 

tears, which is not coagulated either by acids or by 

heat ; when it is evaporated slowly in the open air, it is 

converted into an insoluble yellow substance L 
dacryolithe m. 

dacryolith, lachrymal calculus L 
dacryolithiase f. 

dacryolithiasis, production of calculi in the tear ducts L 
dacryome m. 

dacryoma; flow of tears caused by the obliteration of 

the lachrymal points (Vogel) L 
dacryonome m. 

dacryonoma; rodent ulcer of the tear ducts; name 

wrongly given to epiphora L 
dacryopee 

a. which causes lachrymation L 
dacryops f. 

dacryops, tumour of the tear ducts L 
dacryops m. 

dacryops, a retention cyst that has developed in the 

main ducts or accessory ducts of the lachrymal glands ; 

a French synonym is "grenouillette lacrymale" M 
dacryoptose f. 

lachrymation, weeping, crying L 
dacryopyose f. 

dacryopyosis, suppuration of the lachrymal apparatus L 
dacryorrhee f. 

dacryorrhoea, epiphora L 
dacryostagme m. 

lachrymation, weeping, crying (Kulm) L 
daltonien, ienne 

referable to Daltonism M 
daltonien m. 

one who is affected with Daltonism L 
daltonisme m. 

Daltonism (after John Dalton, the English chemist and 

physicist, who was afflicted with congenital dsychroma- 

topsia ; he was the first to give a precise and complete 

71 



description of the disease) ; the term includes all the 
congenital disturbances in colour perception; the ab- 
sence of all colour perception constitutes achroma- 
topsia, whereas the absence of perception of certain 
colours bears the name of dyschromatopsia M 
an abnormal visual condition which prevents one from 
distinguishing certain colours from one another, par- 
ticularly complementary colours HDT 
a variety of dyschromatopsia, characterised by real 
blindness for certain colours, yet with the preservation 
of vision for the other colours ; most often the percep- 
tion of red is absent ; next comes the loss of green ; 
often these two colours are confused with each other L 

De, de (in proper names) See : couteau de De Graefe 

signe de de Graefe 

dechirures de la retine f. 
retinal tears M 

decollement de l'iris m. 

detachment of the iris, iridodialysis ; deglutination of 
part of the periphery of the iris, effected at its attach- 
ment to the ciliary ligament in order to produce an 
artificial pupil, situated at the edge of the cornea, 
between the ciliary ligament and the detached edge of 
the iris L 

decollement de la retine m. 

detachment of the retina; ablatio retinae; amotio re- 
tinae ; it is essentially characterised by the presence of 
a collection of liquid underneath the layer of the visual 
cells of the retina, in a part of the retina comprised be- 
tween the ora serrata and the optic nerve M 
spreading apart of the retina, which is lifted up and 
pushed back [forward] toward the cavity of the vitre- 
ous humour : by a morbid production that is solid, sar- 
comatous, or melanic ; or by a liquid that is sometimes 
serous, sometimes gelatinous, sometimes bloodtinged 
(subretinal apoplexy), sometimes purulent; most often 
it is a transparent serosity, colourless or yellowish 
(subretinal hydrops) L 

decollement retinien m. 

detachment of the retina; ablatio retinae; amotio re- 
tinae ; it is essentially characterised by the presence of 
a collection of liquid underneath the layer of the visual 
cells of the retina, in a part of the retina comprised be- 
tween the ora serrata and the optic nerve M 
dedaigneux m. 

the external rectus muscle of the eye, called "disdain- 

72 



ful" because of the expression that it gives to one's 
look L 

deficit accomodatif m. 

deficiency in accomodation M 

defroncer les sourcils 

to cease keeping the eyebrows wrinkled ; to cease knit- 
ting the brows HDT 

de Graefe, De Graefe See: couteau de De Graefe 

signe de de Graefe 

dehiscent See : cataracte dehiscente 

demi-mou, molle See : cataracte demi-molle 

demi-voyant m. 

a quasi-blind person, one who but half sees; his very 
imperfect vision, however, is sufficient for him to find 
his way about although it considerably restricts his 
choice of work; practically, he is distinguished from a 
blind person in that he is not obliged to entrust himself 
to a guide M 

Demours See : membrane de Demours 

dente See: roue dentee oculaire 

dentele See : fibre dentelee 

deorsumvergent See : strabisme deorsumvergent 

dermoide See : kyste dermoide 

Descemet See : membrane de Descemet 

descemetite f. 

descemetitis, inflammation of Descemet's membrane L 

Desmarres See : pince de Desmarres 

deuteranope f. 

a person with blindness for green or achloropsia M 

devenir aveugle 

to become blind HDT 

deviation conjuguee de la tete et des yeux f. 

conjugate deviation of the head and of the eyes; syn- 
drome characterised by the deviation of both eyes and 
of the head in the same direction (Vulpian and Prevost, 
1868) ; it is found particularly in cerebral haemorrhage, 
and also in haemorrhages of the cerebellum and of the 
pons ; it may follow a contracture or a paralysis L 

deviation des yeux vers le bas f. 

catablepsia, abrupt downward deviation of the eyes; it 
usually represents the initial phase of bascule deviation 
(more rarely it forms the terminal phase) [one of the 
complications and sequelae of epidemic encephalitis] B 

deviation des yeux vers le haut f. 

anablepsia, abrupt upward deviation of the eyes [one 
of the complications and sequelae of epidemic en- 
cephalitis] B 

73 



deviation du regard vers le haut f. 

Same as preceding entry 

deviation oculaire laterale f. 

parablepsia, abrupt deviation of the eyes to one side 
[one of the complications and sequelae of epidemic en- 
cephalitis] B 

deviation oculaire vers le haut f. 

anablepsia, abrupt upward deviation of the eyes [one 
of the complications and sequelae of epidemic ence- 
phalitis] B 

deviation paroxystique des globes f. 

spasmodic deviation of the eyeballs [one of the compli- 
cations and sequelae of epidemic encephalitis] B 

deviation spasmodique du regard a un cote f. 

parablepsia, spasmodic deviation of the gaze to one 
side, lateral oculogyric spasm [one of the complica- 
tions and sequelae of epidemic encephalitis] TB 

deviation superieure f. 

anablepsia, upward deviation of the eyes [one of the 
complications and sequelae of epidemic encepha- 
litis] TB 

devie See : cils devies 

diabetique See : amaurose diabetique 
cataracte diabetique 
retinite diabetique 

diaphragme m. 

opaque circle placed in a lens, to intercept the rays 
that do not converge at the focus HDT 

dichromatique See : dyschromatopsie dichromatique 

dictyite f. 

dictyitis, term proposed to designate inflammation of 
the retina L 

dictyopsie f. 

dictyopsia ; eye disease in which one perceives shadows 
ramified like a fine network or a spider's web L 

diffus See : choroidite diffuse 

diffusion See : cercle de diffusion 

dilatation de la pupille f. 

dilatation of the pupil, pupillary dilatation HDT 
enlargement of the opening of the iris in order to allow 
a greater number of light rays to reach the depth of the 
eye ; also, the pupil may be dilated permanently in con- 
ditions brought about by experimentation or by patho- 
logic alterations L 

diophtalme m. 

binocle, optic instrument analogous to besides, by 
means of which one sees an object with both eyes at 

74 



the same time, which fact distinguishes it from a single 
lorgnette ; in surgery, a bandage designed to cover both 
eyes ; it is crossed in back upon the occiput and in front 
upon the root of the nose L 
diopsimetre m. 

diopsimeter, instrument designed to measure the indi- 
vidual extent of the field of vision L 
dioptre m. 

dioptre, synonym of speculum ; in optics, a curved sur- 
face which separates two media of different refraction L 
dioptrie f. 

dioptre, the power of a lens having a focal distance of 
1 metre M 

unit serving to measure the power of a lens ; it is equal 
to the quotient of the unit of length adopted, the metre, 
divided by the focal length evaluated by means of this 
same unit ; a dioptre is hence the power of a lens having 
a focus of 1 metre L 
dioptrique 

a. dioptric, referable to a dioptre M 

See also : telescope dioptrique 
f. dioptrics, the part of optics referable to the refrac- 
tion of light when the latter traverses media of 
different density HDT 

the science which treats of refracted light, of the 
phenomena produced by light in traversing trans- 
parent media of different density ; it is a branch of 
physics L 
diphterie conjonctivale f. 

diphtheria of the conjunctiva, acute inflammation of the 
conjunctiva in which the oedema evinces a develop- 
ment and an intensity peculiar to that disease M 
diphterique See: conjonctivite diphterique 
diphteritique See : conjonctivite diphteritique 

ophtalmie diphteritique 
diplobacillaire See : conjonctivite subaigue diplobacillaire 
diplobacille See : conjonctivite a diplobacilles 
diplometre m. 

diplometer, instrument conceived by Landolt for the 
purpose of measuring the diameter of objects that one 
cannot touch, such as that of the pupil L 

diplopie f. 

diplopia, double vision, seeing double M 

an eye disease in which one perceives two images of 

the same object, owing to defective convergence of the 

visual axes HDT 

lesion of the sense of sight in which two distinct sensa- 

75 



tions are produced by a single object, which, conse- 
quently, seems double (sometimes even the perception 
of the object is multiplied a certain number of times, 
and this lesion is also designated as diplopia, suffusio 
multiplicans) ; it results from a disorder in the parallel- 
ism of the two visual axes, on account of which the 
images are no longer received upon the two correspond- 
ing points of each retina L 

diplopie binoculaire f. 

binocular diplopia; it results from motor imbalance of 
both eyes M 

diplopie croisee f. 

crossed diplopia M 

diplopie de meme nom f . 

homonymous diplopia M 

diplopie homonyme f. 

homonymous diplopia M 

diplopie monoculaire f. 

monocular diplopia ; it results from modifications in the 
refraction of one eye M 

diplopie unioculaire f. 

monocular diplopia; it is extremely rare; in it the 
corneas are normal, the irides healthy, the pupils mo- 
bile ; there is no alteration in the deep membranes of 
the eye; however, if the left eye is closed and an object 
placed in front of the right eye, the patient sees two 
objects; the distance between the images remains the 
same in all positions, as opposed to what takes place in 
binocular diplopia L 

diplopie verticale f. 

vertical diplopia M 

diploscope m. 

diploscope M 

diploscope de Remy m. 

Remy's diploscope, essentially composed of a perforated 
screen placed at a certain distance from the eyes, and 
through whose apertures one examines a second screen 
upon which letters are printed M 

direct See : astigmatisme direct 
nerfs ciliaires directs 

discission f. 

discission; incision of the lens capsule, practised with 
a fine needle inserted through the cornea or through 
the sclerotic, for the purpose of obtaining the resorption 
of the crystalline lens affected with cataract; kera- 
tonyxis ; scleroticonyxis L 

76 



disque pupillaire rouge m. 

red reflection of pupillary opening (in skiascopy) M 

dissemine See : cataracte a taches disseminees 
choro'idite disseminee 

distance See : ajustement de Toeil aux distances 
vision a distance 

distance focale f. 

distance from the optic centre to the principal focus 
of a lens HDT 

space between the summit of a spheric surface and its 
principal focus or the object which is placed there L 

distichiase f. 

distichia, distichiasis, trichiasis in which two super- 
numerary rows of eyelashes are present L 

distichiasis m. 

Same as preceding entry 

diurne See : vue diurne 

divergence f. 

divergence HDT 

divergent See : strabisme divergent 

strabisme divergent periodique 

divin See : pierre divine 

Donders See : maladie de Donders 

double See: ophtalmoplegie double 
verres a double foyer 
voir double 
vue double 

double-vue f. 
diplopia L 

douche oculaire f. 

eye douche ; cold douche given to the eyeball several 
times a day, by means of a curved siphon plunged into 
a vase full of water and placed on an elevated stand ; 
the douche alone is sufficient at the outset of purulent 
conjunctivitis; when the purulent secretion is estab- 
lished, the douche is accompanied by the instillation of 
several drops of a silver nitrate eyewash (4 grams to 30 
grams of distilled water) twice daily L 

dragon m. 

spot found in the eye of the horse, the commencement 
of a cataract HDT 

dragonneau m. 

Same as preceding entry 

drapeau m. 

vulgar name of pterygium L 

droit See : muscle droit superieur 

77 



droit externe m. 

external rectus muscle of the eye M 

droit inferieur m. 

rectus inferior muscle of the eye M 

droit interne m. 

internal rectus muscle of the eye M 

droit superieur m. 

rectus superior muscle of the eye; it is the smallest of 
the four rectus muscles of the eye L 

du Petit See : syndrome de Pourfour du Petit 

dur See : cataracte dure 

dynamique See : refraction dynamique 

dyschromatope m. 

a person affected with dyschromatopsia L 

dyschromatopsie f. 

dyschromatopsia, the absence of perception of certain 
colours; one aspect of Daltonism; most habitually the 
disturbance affects the perception of red and of 
green M 

disease of the sense of sight in which certain colours 
are not perceived, or are confused with those which 
remain perceptible L 

dyschromatopsie chromatique f. 

chromatic dyschromatopsia, in which one distinguishes 
more than two colours, but not all the gradations L 

dyschromatopsie dichromatique f. 

dichromatic dyschromatopsia, in which only two co- 
lours are perceived ; all light colours appear white, and 
all coloured shades appear black L 

dyschromatopsie partielle f. 

dyschromatopsia in which the faculty of distinguishing 
colours is only partly abolished ; sometimes the patient 
does not distinguish more than two tones of the spec- 
trum, blue and red ; sometimes he confuses colours, ap- 
parently because the retinal fibres which give the sensa- 
tion of red are without sensitiveness, whence the name 
of anerythropsia ; Daltonism L 

dysenterique See: conjonctivite dysenterique 

dyslexie f. 

dyslexia ; the patient begins to read, then after four or 
five words he no longer understands the sense of what 
he reads ; after a short rest he can resume reading, but 
the trouble returns M 

dysopie f. 

dysopia, weakening of the sight L 



78 



eblouir 

to strike the eyes with a very bright light that they 

cannot bear, to dazzle A 

to strike with brilliance that the eyes cannot bear HDT 

eblouissant, ante 

that which dazzles HDT 

eblouissement m. 

dazzling, dimness ; momentary disturbance of vision, 
caused either by the objective and sudden impression 
of too bright a light or by the subjective sensation of a 
flickering light because of some internal cause, such as 
a cerebral congestion L 

action of dazzling, state of one who is dazzled; dis- 
turbance in vision and stupefaction produced by a con- 
gestion HDT 

state of vision disturbed by too much light; it also 
signifies alteration of the faculty of seeing, occasioned 
by an internal cause A 

eborgnement m. 

action of putting out an eye, state of one who is blind 
in one eye HDT 

eborgner 

to render a person one-eyed by depriving him of one 
of the two eyes ; to hit a person in the eye HDT 
to render a person one-eyed, to deprive a person of one 
eye A 

ecarquiller les yeux 

to open one's eyes wide HDT 

ecart pupillaire m. 

distance between the pupils, interpupillary distance, 
pupillary distance M 

ecartement pupillaire m. 

Same as preceding entry 

ecchymose palpebrale f. 

palpebral ecchymosis M 

ecchymose sous-conjonctivale f. 

subconjunctival ecchymosis M 

echelle de l'accomodation f. 

field of accomodation, scale of accomodation, meso- 
ropter of accomodation ; the distance over which we 
can move an object without ceasing to see it distinctly; 
its extent depends on the size of the objects and on the 
power (essentially muscular) of accomodating the eye 
for vision at various distances L 

echelle visuelle f. 

test types used in testing vision M 

79 



echinophtalmie £. 

echinophthalmia ; inflammation of the eyelids in which 
the eyelashes are erect and bristling L 

eclairage lateral m. 

lateral illumination, oblique illumination; method of 
examining the eye which consists in directing on the 
cornea, from the outer side, a pencil of light from a 
lamp situated about 30 centimetres away, and concen- 
trated by means of a lens ; one thus throws light on the 
different layers of the cornea; opacities of the crystal- 
line lens may be distinguished if care is taken to dilate 
the pupil with atropine beforehand L 

eclatant See : lumiere eclatante 

ecoulement lacrymal m. 

flow of tears, lachrymal flow M 

ecran irien m. 
iris M 

ectropion m. 

ectropion, ectropium, eversio palpebrae ; eversion of one 
eyelid or of both eyelids, especially of the lower one L 
turning up of the eyelid which prevents it from cover- 
ing the eyeball (synonym of eraillement) HDT 

ectropion cicatriciel m. 

cicatricial ectropion, the consequence of retraction of 
the skin produced by a palpebral or facial cicatrix M 

ectropion paralytique m. 

paralytic ectropion, a possible consequence of peri- 
pheral facial paralysis ; it is also observed in blepharo- 
conjunctivitis, leprous and syphilitic infiltrations of the 
eyelids; the palpebral relaxation which gives rise to 
this ectropion is due to paralysis of the orbicular mus- 
cle M 

ectropionne, ee 

affected with ectropion M 

eczema en lunettes m. 

bilateral eczema of the eyelids M 

egilops m. 

aegilops ; small ulcer which forms in the internal angle 
of the eyelids and comes from an open and suppurating 
tumour (anchilops) HDT 

small round ulcer which follows a perforated anchilops ; 
small callous ulcer, deep, sometimes sinuous, which 
forms in the internal angle of the eyelids, and which 
follows anchilops L 

aegilops, formed by the opening of an abscessed anchi- 
lops at the internal angle of the eye A 

80 



egout nasal m. 

in the horse, the orifice of the lachrymal canal HDT 
£gypte See : ophtalmie d'ligypte 
electrique See : ophtalmie electrique 
elevateur de l'oeil m. 

levator muscle of the eye, rectus superior muscle of 
the eye L 
elevateur de la paupiere superieure m. 

levator palpebrae superioris muscle; orbitopalpebral 
muscle; muscle whose upper insertion is at the upper 
part of the sheath of the optic nerve, and whose lower 
insertion is at the upper edge of the tarsal plate of the 
upper eyelid L 

[This should read : muscle whose upper insertion or 
origin is at the lesser wing of the sphenoid bone just 
above and a little lateral to the optic foramen, and 
whose lower insertion is into the lower third of the 
face of the tarsal plate] 
elevateurs m. 

levator muscles of the eye (the rectus superior and the 
obliquus inferior) M 
elevation See : spasme d'elevation du regard 

tic d'elevation des yeux 
elevation du regard f. 

anablepsia, abrupt upward deviation of the eyes [one 
of the complications and sequelae of epidemic ence- 
phalitis] B 

See also: spasme d'elevation du regard 
eloigne See : vision eloignee 
emmetrope 

a. emmetropic ; said of the eye in which the parallel 
rays coming from infinitely remote objects, re- 
fracted by its transparent media, meet exactly upon 
the sensitive surface of the retina (Donders) ; the 
eye is emmetropic when vision is not improved by 
any spheric or cylindric lens; it is ametropic in the 
contrary case (Javal) L 

emmetropic ; an eye is said to be emmetropic when 
the refraction of the eye is normal, when the images 
of objects situated 5 metres or more away form in 
the plane of the retinal perceptive elements, thus 
permitting the observer to have a clear perception 
of the details of the object, without active modifica- 
tion of his accomodation M 
m. a person with emmetropia M 
emmetropic f. 

emmetropia, state of the emmetropic eye L 

81 



emotif See : larmoiement emotif 

empyese f. 

abscess of the posterior cavity of the eye L 

empyesis f. 

abscess of the posterior cavity of the eye L 

en avant See : regarder en avant 

en bandelette See : opacite en bandelette 

en bas See : yeux revulsees en bas 

en ceinture See : opacite en ceinture 

en clairiere See : alopecie en clairiere 

en croissant See : scotome en croissant 

"en entonnoir" See : retine "en entonnoir" 

en grillage See : keratite en grillage 

en haut See : revulsion en haut 

en lunettes See : eczema en lunettes 

en papillotes See : avoir les yeux en papillotes 

"en parapluie" See : retine "en parapluie" 

en quadrant See : hemianopsie en quadrant 

en scotome See : hemianopsie en scotome 

en secteur See : hemianopsie en secteur 

en tomate See : iris en tomate 

encanthis f. 

encanthis ; tumour formed by an increase in size or a 
new production in the lachrymal caruncle L 

encanthis benigne f. 

benign encanthis, simple inflammatory tumefaction of 
the caruncle; it ordinarily yields to emollients and to 
dissolving medicines, or else to astringent eyewashes, 
if the inflammation has gone beyond the chronic 
state L 

encanthis maligne f. 

malignant encanthis, cancerous tumour of the caruncle ; 
it should be extirpated with small curved scissors L 

encaume m. 

encauma, deep and rodent ulcer of the cornea L 
ulcer of the transparent cornea and of the sclerotic 
HDT 

encavure f. 

an indelible hollow left by a bothrion (q. v.) L 

encephalocele See : meningo-encephalocele 

enclavement irien m. 

impaction of the iris M 
enfonce See : yeux enfonces 
enophtalmie f. 

enophthalmos, enophthalmus; retraction of the eyes; 

sinking of the eyeball into the orbit M 

state of the eye buried in the orbit as the result of modi- 

82 



m 



fications in the situation of the eyeball with reference 
to the anteroposterior axis of the orbit ; it is a symptom 
found in the course of various diseases (serious fevers, 
paralysis of the cervical sympathetic) ; it is the opposite 
of exophthalmos L 

entonnoir See : retine "en entonnoir" 

entoptique 

entoptic; said of any phenomenon relative to vision 
which is observed inside of the eye, with the eyelids 
closed, or whose starting point is a condition of the 
media of the eye ; the impression perceived then is 
called an endoscopic image L 

entrevoir 

to half see, to glimpse HDT 

entropion m. 

entropion, entropium, introversio palpebrarum ; intro- 
version of the free edge of the eyelids toward the eye- 
ball; it is always accompanied by trichiasis, which may 
exist without it, and from which it differs in that, in 
entropion, there is introversion of the whole palpebral 
edge including the tarsal cartilage in addition to intro- 
version of the cilia L 

entropion cicatriciel m. 

cicatricial entropion, which most often follows a burn 
by fire or by an acid; it may also be the consequence 
of ulcerous or necrotic inflammation of the skin, in 
which the lesions attack the conjunctival mucous mem- 
brane or the subjacent tarsus M 

entropion granuleux m. 

granular entropion, which results from conjunctival 
cicatrices and cicatricial incurvation of the tarsus M 

entropion spasmodique m. 

spasmodic entropion, a form of orbicular spasm limited 
to one part of the orbicular muscle, most often to the 
marginal part of the lower eyelid ; it may be unilateral 
or bilateral ; introversion of the free edge of the lower 
eyelid takes place in such a fashion that the ciliary 
margin disappears in the lower culdesac and that the 
cilia rub against the bulbar conjunctiva and the lower 
margin of the cornea M 

eperon m. 

fold formed by wrinkles, at the corner of the eye, in 
old persons HDT 

epicanthis f. 

epicanthus ; disease of the internal angle of the eye con- 
sisting in the existence of a semilunar fold of skin, 
which, covering the eyeball [inner canthus] for a vari- 

83 



able extent, prevents direct vision and produces stra- 
bismus; epicanthus is congenital or acquired, monocu- 
lar or double L 

epicanthus m. 

epicanthus, a halfmoon fold of skin covering the com- 
missura palpebrarum medialis M 

epicaume m. 

epicauma; phlyctena upon the cornea, followed by a 
more or less deep spot or ulceration L 

epilation See : pince a epilation 

epiphora m. 

flow of tears caused by a disease of the lachrymal 
canal HDT 

epiphora, watery eye, lachrymation, continual flow of 
tears onto the cheek ; it is not a disease, but a symptom, 
which appears in one of the two following conditions : 
sometimes the secretion of tears is really augmented, 
to such an extent that the liquid does not find a suffi- 
ciently rapid outlet through the lachrymal points (con- 
junctivitis and acute keratitis, irritation of the eye by a 
bright light, irritation of the pituitary) ; sometimes 
the secretion remains the same, but excretion is ren- 
dered difficult by the presence of a mechanical obstacle 
in the tear ducts (lachrymal tumour), or by the lack of 
action of the muscles which play a part in this func- 
tion L 

episcleral, ale 

episcleral, said of that which rests upon the sclerotic L 

episelere m. 

episclera M 

episclerite f. 

episcleritis, periscleritis ; inflammation of the sclerotic, 
or, more exactly, of the episcleral cellular tissue; it is 
a rare disease, hardly found except in rheumatic pa- 
tients; it is called also scleritis 1L 

episcleritis f. 

Same as preceding entry 

episclerotical, ale 

episcleral, said of that which rests upon the sclerotic L 

epithelial See : xerosis epithelial 

epithelioma palpebral m. 

palpebral epithelioma M 

epithelium conjonctival m. 

conjunctival epithelium ; it is of the pavement type, with 
cells whose nucleus is large and whose body is relative- 
ly small ; their form is polygonal, angular, cylindric, 

84 



or prismatic at the base of the oculopalpebral fold L 

eraille See: oeil eraille 

yeux erailles 

eraillement m. 

turning up of the eyelid which prevents it from cover- 
ing the eyeball (synonym of ectropion) HDT 

eraillement de la paupiere m. 

eversion of the eyelid, ectropion L 

esophorie f. 

esophoria M 

espace de Tenon m. 
Tenon's space M 

espace inter-sourcillier m. 

mesophryon, glabella, glabellum, space between the 
eyebrows B 

espaces de Fontana m. 

spaces of Fontana (the spaces in the network of the 
ligamentum pectinatum iridis) M 

essai See : lunettes d'essai 
monture d'essai 
verres d'essai 

essuyer ses larmes 

to dry one's tears HDT 

essuyer ses yeux 

to dry one's eyes (wet with tears) HDT 

ethmocephale m. 

ethmocephalus ; monster with two eyes very close to- 
gether but distinct, the nasal apparatus atrophied and 
its rudiments apparent outside in the form of a tube 
above the eyesockets L 

etincelant See : synchisis etincelant 
synchysis etincelant 

etoile See : cataracte etoilee 

etrangle See : papille etranglee 

etre aveugle de naissance 

to be blind from birth, to be born blind, to be con- 
genially blind HDT 

eversion des points lacrymaux f. 

eversion of the lachrymal points, outward deviation of 
the lachrymal points in ectropion L 

ex See : amblyopic ex anopsia 

excavation atrophique du nerf optique f. 

atrophic excavation of the optic nerve L 

excavation de la papille f. 

papillary excavation (a characteristic sign of hyper- 
tonia) ; the ophthalmoscope reveals the rather distinct 
and sloping contour of the papilla, the presence of a 

85 



slight semilunar or circular shadow within the pupillary 
contour, and the arrangement of the vessels forming a 
hook on the edges M 

[This should read : the size of the excavation varies a 
great deal. It may occupy only a very small part of 
the papilla, or it may be so large as to reduce the nor- 
mal coloured portion to a narrow circle or crescent. 
The transition from the tissue proper of the papilla to 
the excavation may be either gradual or abrupt. This 
is to be perceived from the behaviour of the vessels ; in 
the former case they pass without visible bending into 
the excavation; in the latter they suddenly bend like 
hooks] 

excavation papillaire f. 

Same as preceding entry 

exophorie f. 

exophoria M 

exophtalmie f. 

exophthalmos, exophthalmia, exophthalmus ; exag- 
gerated protrusion of the eyeball M 
disease of the eye which makes it protrude from the 
orbit HDT 

projection of the eye outside of the eyesocket to a vari- 
able degree, directly from back to front or more or less 
obliquely ; it is one of the most characteristic symptoms 
of exophthalmic goitre L 

exophtalmie pulsatile f. 

pulsating exophthalmos M 

exophtalmique 

exophthalmic, referable to exophthalmos L 
See also: goitre exophtalmique 

exophtalmos m. (L) See : exophtalmie 

exorbitis f. 

exorbitis, synonym of exophthalmos L 

exorbitisme m. 

exorbitism, synonym of exophthalmos L 

expulsif See : hemorragie expulsive 

exsudatif See : choro'idite exsudative 
retinite exsudative 

externe See : angle externe 

canthotomie externe 
chalazion externe 
commissure externe 
corps genouille externe 
droit externe 
moteur oculaire externe 
nerf moteur oculaire externe 

86 



nerf oculo-moteur externe 

oculo-moteur externe 

oculo-musculaire externe 

ophtalmoplegie externe 

orgeolet externe 

strabisme externe 
extraction de la cataracte f. 

extraction of cataract, cataract extraction ; it is effected 
by means of an incision made in the cornea; this in- 
cision may be larger or smaller, depending on the na- 
ture of the caratact; it may also be followed by the 
excision of a portion of iris L 
extraction du cristallin f. 

extraction of the crystalline lens ; keratotomy ; incision 
of the cornea pellucida; this name is given to the ge- 
neral process of cataract extraction by means of an in- 
cision made in the cornea [limbus] L 
extus See : orbito-extus-scleroticien 



face-a-main m. 

a lorgnette with a long handle which enables one to 
hold it with the hand in front of objects HDT 

facette See : yeux a facettes 

facies d'Hutchinson m. 

Hutchinson's facies, characteristic of nuclear ophthal- 
moplegia M 

it is characterised by elevation of the eyebrows due to 
the contraction of the frontal muscle, the purpose of 
which is to compensate for the paralysis of the levator 
muscle of the eyelids ; it is found in total external oph- 
thalmoplegia [Other characteristics are: eyeballs fixed 
and lids drooping] L 

faible See : vue faible 

faire les yeux blancs 

to show the whites of the eyes, to turn the eyes upward 
so that only the lower white part is visible HDT 
to suffer an attack of anablepsia RR2 

fatigue See : yeux fatigues 

fausse synizesis f. 

false synizesis ; the obstruction of the pupil by foreign 
matter, such as cataract debris, pus from a hypopyon, 
et cetera L 

faux, fausse See : cataracte fausse 

favique See : blepharite favique 

fendu See : yeux bien fendus 

87 



fenetre See : cataracte fenetree 

pince fenetree a chalazion 

fente palpebrale f. 

palpebral aperture, fissure, slit; orbital fissure, the slit 
or opening between the eyelids M 

fibre a noyaux f. 

nuclear fibre, or rather tube; one of the two types of 
fibres which form the tissue proper of the crystalline 
lens ; the nuclear tubes are hollow and more superficial 
than the other type ; they form a layer of from 2 to 4 
tenths of a millimetre at the surface of the crystalline 
lens ; they run parallel, are from 7 to 9 thousandths of 
a millimetre wide, flattened out, clearly outlined, finely 
granular inside, and at intervals have spheric or ovoid 
nuclei 6 thousandths of a millimetre wide, which give 
them a characteristic aspect L 

fibre dentelee f. 

dentate fibre; one of the two types of fibres which 
form the tissue proper of the crystalline lens ; the den- 
tate fibres form the nucleus of the crystalline lens, its 
densest part; they are somewhat narrower than the 
other type, somewhat thinner, more transparent, paler, 
and without inner granulations normally; in human 
beings their edges are finely dentate L 

fibres optiques f. 
optic fibres M 

Fieuzal See: verres Fieuzal 

figures de Purkinje f. 

Purkinje's figures; perception, in the field of vision, of 
the shadow which the retinal vessels project on the 
posterior layer of the retina; the light must penetrate 
into the eye very obliquely; it is managed by looking 
at a dark background while moving a candle to and fro 
below the eye L 

filament de l'oeil m. 

ocular filament; one of the subjective images perceived 
in muscae volitantes L 

filamenteux See : keratite filamenteuse 

fistule lacrymale f. 

lachrymal fistula, direct communication of the lach- 
rymal sac with the skin M 
lesion of the lachrymal sac HDT 

lachrymal fistula, fistula of the lachrymal sac; when 
any obstacle to the flow of tears allows them to reach 
the lachrymal sac only in minimum quantities and 
slowly, the continuing mucous secretion causes dis- 
tension of the sac and of its integuments, forming a 

88 



*S 



lachrymal tumour; the distended parts give way, be- 
come inflamed, and finally burst; the result is a la- 
chrymal fistula, ordinarily complete and external ; much 
more rarely it is internal, incomplete, or blind L 
ulcer at the internal angle of the eye, with perforation 
of the tear duct A 

flava See: macula flava 

fleur See : yeux a fleur de tete 

fluxion sur les yeux f. 

an afflux of blood or of other liquids into the 
eyes HDT 

focal See : distance focale 
plan focal 
plans focaux 

folliculaire See: conjonctivite folliculaire 

follicules palpebraux m. 

palpebral follicles, Meibomian glands ; they are located 
in the tarsal organs ; they are closer to the posterior or 
ocular surface of these cartilages than to their anterior 
or cutaneous surface ; there are 25 to 30 of them in the 
upper eyelid, and 20 to 25 in the lower one; they are 
[surrounded by acini opening into lateral ducts] like 
a grape, and not follicles ; they secrete a sebaceous mat- 
ter [along the intermarginal space] which prevents the 
external flow of tears L 

folliculite ciliaire f. 

ciliary folliculitis M 

fond de l'oeil m. 

fundus oculi M 

fongus m. 

a veterinary term for an eye disease in which the 
choroid overlaps in small tufts at the edge of the 
iris HDT 

Fontana See : espaces de Fontana 

foramen caecum m. 

fovea centralis, depression of the centre of the yellow 
spot; it has wrongly been considered as a veritable 
hole (foramen centrale Soemmeringii) L 

force See: regard force 

fort See: myopie forte 

fosse centrale f. 

fovea centralis, foramen caecum ; depression of the 
centre of the yellow spot; it has wrongly been con- 
sidered as a veritable hole (foramen centrale Soem- 
meringii) L 

fosse orbitaire f. 

orbital cavity, orbit, eyesocket ; cavity designed to con- 



tain the organ of sight, situated at the upper part of the 

face, and composed of seven bones L 
foudroyant See : glaucome foudroyant 
fovea f. 

fovea M 

See also: fundus foveae 
fovea centralis f. 

foramen caecum, fovea centralis, depression of the 

centre of the yellow spot ; it has wrongly been con- 
sidered as a veritable hole (foramen centrale Soem- 

meringii) L 
foyer See : verres a double foyer 
froncement des sourcils m. 

wrinkling the eyebrows by contracting them HDT 
froncer les sourcils 

to wrinkle the eyebrows by contracting them HDT 
frontal See : nerf palpebro-frontal 

palpebro-frontal 
fronto-sourcilier, ere 

frontosuperciliary, referable to the forehead and the 

eyebrow M 
se frotter les yeux 

to rub one's eyes (in order to remove a foreign body, 

to stop itching, to open the eyelids on waking, and to 

see more distinctly) HDT 
frotter ses yeux 

Same as preceding entry 
fume See : verres de teinte fumee 

verres fumes 
fundus foveae m. 

fundus foveae M 
fungus m. (HDT) See : fongus 
fusiforme See : cataracte fusiforme 



ganglion ciliaire m. 

ciliary ganglion M 

ganglion lenticulaire m. 

ophthalmic ganglion, lenticular ganglion ; small rectan- 
gular reddish body at the external side of the optic 
nerve near the back of the eyesocket [between it and 
the external rectus muscle in the posterior part of the 
orbit], and formed of nerve cells and fibres L 

ganglion ophtalmique m. 
Same as preceding entry 



90 



gene visuelle f. 

eye trouble, trouble in seeing M 

general See : amaurose generate 

genicule See : corps genicule 

genouille See : corps genouille 

corps genouille externe 
corps genouille interne 

gerontoxon m. 

gerontoxon, arcus senilis ; an opacification of the cornea 
parallel to the sclerocorneal limbus ; it is formed by the 
meeting of two semicircles (upper and lower) whose 
edges fuse at the extremities of the horizontal diameter 
of the cornea ; it rarely appears before the age of fifty M 
opacity of the circumference of the cornea observed 
after the age of fifty to sixty, in the form of an upper 
arc at first, then a yellowish complete circle (senile 
circle) ; it results from the fatty transformation of the 
corneal cells, and ordinarily coincides with a similar de- 
generation of the arterial system and of the cardiac 
fibres L 
See also : leucoma gerontoxon 

glabelle f. 

glabella, glabellum, mesophryon; sunken part of the 
frontal bone upon the median line between the frontal 
protrusions and the internal extremity of the eyebrows ; 
the skin which covers it is bald save that, in some per- 
sons, the eyebrows continue transversely upon the me- 
dian line L 

glabello-occipital, ale 

glabellooccipital ; said of the plane, of the suture, and of 
the line which run from the glabella to the occipital 
tuberosity L 

glande de Meibomius f. 

Meibomian gland; the Meibomian glands, or palpebral 
follicles, are located in the tarsal organs ; they are closer 
to the posterior or ocular surface of these cartilages 
than to their anterior or cutaneous surface; there are 
25 to 30 of them in the upper eyelid, and 20 to 25 in the 
lower one; they are [surrounded by acini opening into 
lateral ducts] like a grape, and not follicles; they se- 
crete a sebaceous matter [along the intermarginal 
space] which prevents the external flow of tears L 

glande innominee f. 

lachrymal gland L 

glande lacrymale f. 

lachrymal gland, which secretes the tears HDT 

it is situated at the upper and outer part of the orbit; 

91 



it is composed of three portions : 1 — the most consi- 
derable one, representing a segment of an ovoid running 
crosswise; 2 — an accessory one, flattened out, roughly- 
quadrilateral, in front of the preceding one ; 3 — the ac- 
cessory conjunctival lachrymal glands L 

glande lacrymale orbitaire f. 
orbital lachrymal gland M 

glande lacrymale palpebrale f. 

palpebral lachrymal gland M 

glande orbitaire f. 

orbital lachrymal gland M 

glandes lacrymales f. 

lachrymal glands (palpebral and orbital) M 

glandes lacrymales orbitaires f. 
orbital lachrymal glands M 

glandes sous-conjonctivales f. 

subconjunctival glands; at various points of the oculo- 
palpebral fold, the conjunctiva possesses 8 to 25 grape- 
like glands, from one tenth to one twelfth of a milli- 
metre in diameter, constituted by one, two, or three 
acini whose culsdesac are lined with an epithelium ana- 
logous to that of the lachrymal glands L 

glanduleux See : blepharite glanduleuse 

glaucomateux, euse 

glaucomatous, referable to glaucoma M 
See also : antiglaucomateux 

cataracte glaucomateuse 
halo glaucomateux 
iridectomie anti-glaucomateuse 

glaucome m. 

glaucoma, a certain number of pathologic conditions 
whose common characteristic is an elevation in the in- 
traocular tension or the stigmata of that hyperten- 
sion M 

an eye disease in which the vitreous humour becomes 
opaque and in which the fundus of the eye takes on a 
greenish tone HDT 

an eye disease so called because the pupil often takes 
on a greenish yellow appearance ; it consists in an aug- 
mentation of intraocular tension, whether the liquids of 
the eye be secreted in too great abundance, or their 
routes of filtration be obliterated L 

glaucome absolu m. 

glaucoma absolutum, absolute glaucoma M 

glaucome aigu m. 

acute glaucoma M 

the symptoms of acute glaucoma are: 1 — objective (in- 

92 



jection of the conjunctival vessels, dull appearance and 
absence of feeling of the cornea because of the compres- 
sion of its nerve elements, diminution of the anterior 
chamber, mydriasis, loss of colour of the iris, and hard- 
ness of the eyeball easily appreciable on palpation with 
the finger) ; 2 — ophthalmoscopic (cloudiness of the re- 
fringent media, choking of the veins of the papilla) ; 3 — 
functional (periorbital pains, lachrymation, considerable 
weakening of the vision) ; the disease proceeds by leaps 
and bounds and rapidly brings about complete blind- 
ness when one does not intervene in time L 

glaucome chronique m. 

chronic glaucoma, glaucoma simplex, simple glau- 
coma M 

chronic glaucoma is much more insidious than acute 
glaucoma is ; it is especially remarkable because of the 
excavation of the papilla; under the influence of the 
exaggerated intraocular tension, the papilla becomes 
atrophied and hollowed out ; the large vessels form 
characteristic hooks on leaving the excavation, upon 
the very limits of the papilla ; at the same time, the 
central artery is the site of spontaneous pulsations, 
which fact is, according to de Graefe, a pathognomonic 
sign; in this form of glaucoma, the patient sees rain- 
bows around candles and progressively loses his vision, 
whose field begins to be narrowed at the inner part L 

glaucome foudroyant m. 

fulminant glaucoma, a form of inflammatory primary 
glaucoma M 

glaucome hemorragique m. 

haemorrhagic glaucoma ; it is a malignant, but rare, 
form ; it is characterised by retinal apoplexy, very vio- 
lent pains, and exaggerated hardness of the eyeball L 

glaucome infantile m. 

infantile glaucoma, hydrophthalmia M 

glaucome primitif inflammatoire m. 

inflammatory primary glaucoma ; it is essentially char- 
acterised by the abrupt appearance of symptoms of 
ocular irritation, produced by the rapid rise in ten- 
sion M 

glaucome prodromique m. 

prodromal glaucoma, the forerunner of inflammatory 
primary glaucoma M 

glaucome secondaire m. 

secondary glaucoma ; it occurs as a complication in cer- 
tain eye diseases which have a tendency to increase the 

93 



intraocular pressure (serous iritis, dislocation of the 
crystalline lens, and so on) L 

glaucome simple m. 

glaucoma simplex, simple glaucoma, chronic glau- 
coma M 

in simple glaucoma, the manifestations of increased 
pressure seem to be limited to the posterior pole of the 
eye and the papilla, which becomes hollowed out; but 
the cornea remains transparent and the anterior cham- 
ber keeps its normal dimensions L 

glaucome subaigu m. 

subacute glaucoma M 

glauque See: yeux glauques 

gliome de la retine m. 

glioma retinae, fungus medullaris oculi, cat's eye amau- 
rosis ; a soft malignant tumour analogous to that of 
glioma of the cerebrum, in which the pupil evinces a 
peculiar reflection of light M 

gliome retinien m. 

Same as in preceding entry 

globe m. 

eyeball M 

See also : abaissement des globes 

deviation paroxystique des globes 

globe de l'oeil m. 
eyeball HDT 

globe oculaire m. 

eyeball ; the eye separate from the muscles which are 
attached to it and from the other tissues which sur- 
round it L 

globes revulses vers le haut m. 

anablepsia, abrupt upward deviation of the eyes [one 
of the complications and sequelae of epidemic ence- 
phalitis] B 

glycosurique See : amaurose glycosurique 
retinite glycosurique 

godronne See : canal godronne 

goitre exophtalmique m. 

exophthalmic goitre ; it is essentially characterised by : 
1 — cardiac palpitations, with very pronounced arterial 
throbs, especially at the neck, head, and sometimes the 
abdomen ; 2 — a swelling of the thyroid gland ; 3 — a 
double exophthalmos ; A — a very rapid trembling of a 
particular kind ; and 5 — the diminution of the electric 
resistance L 

94 



gommeux See : tarsite syphilitique gommeuse 

gondoje f. 

oval saucer for eye lotions HDT 

scaphium oculare, eyecup ; little vase used to bathe the 

eyes L 

gonococcique See : conjonctivite gonococcique 

conjonctivite non gonococcique du nou- 
veau-ne 

goutte See : compte-gouttes 

goutte sereine f. 

gutta serena, the vulgar name of amaurosis A 
amaurosis, paralysis of the optic nerve ; paralysis of the 
retina, which affects the eye without spoiling its trans- 
parency HDT 

gouttiere lacrymale f. 
lachrymal canal M 

cavity formed by the os unguis and the ascending 
apophysis of the upper jawbone which contains the 
lachrymal sac L 

Gowers See : syndrome de Gowers 

Graefe See : couteau de De Graefe 
signe de de Graefe 

grand angle m. 

internal angle, internal canthus L 

grand canthus m. 

canthus proper, internal commissure, nasal canthus, 
commissura palpebrarum medialis L 

grand oblique m. 

obliquus superior, one of the depressor muscles of the 
eye M 

grand oblique de l'oeil m. 

superior oblique muscle of the eye, obliquus superior 
muscle; this muscle turns the eyeball upward and out- 
ward L 

granulations conjonctivales f. 

conjunctival granulations, palpebral granulations ; they 
are divided into: 1 — granulations caused by papillary 
hypertrophy ; and 2 — granulations proper, neoplastic or 
vesicular (trachoma) L 

granulations palpebrales f. 
Same as preceding entry 

granuleux See : conjonctivite granuleuse 
entropion granuleux 
keratite granuleuse 
pannus granuleux 

95 



grattelle f. 

ciliary blepharitis; there are two varieties, ciliary 
blepharitis proper, and glandulous blepharitis L 

gravelle f. 

one of the names of chalazion L 

Graves See : maladie de Graves 

grele f. 

small tumour upon the eyelid, analogous to a hail- 
stone HDT 
name given to chalazion because of its form L 

grenouillette lacrymale f 

dacryops, a retention cyst that has developed in the 
main ducts or accessory ducts of the lachrymal 
glands M 

grillage See : keratite en grillage 



halo glaucomateux m. 

halo glaucomatosus, a slight discolouration of the re- 
tinal zone adjacent to the optic disc found in glau- 
coma M 
haut See : deviation des yeux vers le haut 

deviation du regard vers le haut 
deviation oculaire vers le haut 
globes revulses vers le haut 
regard vers le haut 
revulsion en haut 
spasmes oculaires vers le haut 
helcydrion m. 

helcydrium, superficial ulceration of the cornea L 
heliophobe 

a. photophobic, evincing aversion from light 
s. a name given to albinos because of their difficulty 
in standing sunlight L 
heliophobie f. 

heliophobia (a characteristic of albinos) M 
morbid fear of sunlight L 
hemeralope m. 

one afflicted with hemeralopia L 
hemeralopie f. 

hemeralopia, night blindness ; disease characterised by 
the dilatation of the pupil with abrupt diminution or 
complete abolition of vision while the sun is below the 
horizon L 

hemeralopia, night blindness ; the considerable difficulty 
of patients in finding their way after sunset M 

96 



hemiachromatopsie f. 

hemiachromatosia, abolition of the chromatic sense in 
one half of each field of vision (lesion of the cortical 
centre of vision) M 

hemianopsie f. 

hemianopia, hemianopsia; eye disease in which pa- 
tients perceive only half of the objects at which they 
look; in horizontal hemianopsia they perceive the up- 
per or lower half ; in vertical hemianopsia they perceive 
the right or left half L 

hemianopsie binasale f. 

binasal hemianopia M 

hemianopsie bitemporale f. 

bitemporal hemianopia M 

hemianopsie complete f. 

complete hemianopia M 

hemianopsie croisee f. 

crossed hemianopia; in vertical hemianopia, both eyes 
ordinarily see the same half of the object and nothing 
but this half (homonymous hemianopia) ; but some- 
times the right eye sees the left half, and the left eye 
the right, so that, in binocular vision, the entire object 
is seen, whereas each eye apart perceives only a part L 

hemianopsie en quadrant f. 

quadrant hemianopia, one type of homonymous hemi- 
anopia M 

hemianopsie en scotome f. 

scotoma hemianopia, one type of homonymous hemi- 
anopia M 

hemianopsie en secteur f. 

quadrant hemianopia, one type of homonymous hemi- 
anopia M 

hemianopsie heteronyme f. 

heteronymous hemianopia; it may be bitemporal when 
the trouble affects the temporal halves, or binasal when 
both nasal halves of the visual fields are altered M 

hemianopsie homonyme f. 

homonymous hemianopia; there are three types: tpyi- 
cal, quadrant, and scotoma M 

in vertical hemianopia, in which patients perceive only 
the right or left half of objects viewed, both eyes ordi- 
narily see the same half of the object and nothing but 
this half L 

hemianopsie horizontale f. 

horizontal hemianopia, in which patients perceive only 
the upper or lower half of objects viewed L 

97 



hemianopsie temporale f. 

temporal hemianopia, encountered in diseases of the 
hypophysis M 

hemianopsie typique f. 

typical hemianopia, one form of homonymous hemi- 
anopia M 

hemianopsie verticale f. 

vertical hemianopia, in which patients perceive only 
the right or left half of objects viewed; in this more 
frequent variety, both eyes ordinarily see the same half 
of the object and nothing but this half (homonymous 
hemianopia) ; but sometimes the right eye sees the left 
half, and the left eye the right, so that, in binocular 
vision, the entire object is seen, whereas each eye apart 
perceives only a part (crossed hemianopia) L 

hemianopsique 

referable to hemianopia M 

hemiopie f. 

hemianopia, hemianopsia, hemiopia M 

hemiopique 

hemianopic, hemiopie M 
See also : reaction hemiopique 

retrecissement hemiopique 
scotome hemiopique 

hemiplegie alterne f. 

alternate hemiplegia or hemiparesis, that associated 
with a parlaysis of a cranial nerve on the opposite 
side M 

hemophtalmie f. 

haemophthalmia, haemophthalmus ; effusion of blood 
within the eye, ordinarily produced by a contusion, 
sometimes following operations on the eye or a violent 
inflammation of that organ ; the resorption of the ex- 
travasated liquid takes place spontaneously when the 
effusion is scanty ; in the contrary case, the blood must 
be evacuated by a puncture of the cornea L 

hemorragie expulsive f. 

expulsive haemorrhage, retrochoroid haemorrhage (en- 
countered in antiglaucomatous iridectomy) ; effusion of 
blood between the choroid and the sclerotic, which 
causes the expulsion of the vitreous humour and the 
ocular membranes M 

hemorragie retro-choroidienne f. 
Same as preceding entry 

hemorragique See : glaucome hemorragique 
retinite hemorragique 

98 



hernie de l'iris f. 

hernia of the iris, said when the iris forms a brownish 
or blackish projection at the surface of the cornea ; pro- 
lapse of the iris M 

heterochromie f. 

heterochromia, difference of colour of two irides L 

heterochromie irienne f. 

heterochromia iridis, difference in pigmentation of the 
iris M 

heteronyme See : hemianopsie heteronyme 

heterophorie f. 

heterophoria M 

heterophtalme 

a. which concerns heterophthalmia 

s. a person whose two eyes are different L 

heterophtalmie f. 

heterophthalmia, heterophthalmos ; difference between 
the two eyes L 

heteroscopie f. 

heteroscopy, abnormal vision L 

hilon m. 

hernia of the iris through the perforated cornea, so 
called because it roughly resembles the black hilum of 
the Windsor bean L 

hippus m. 

hippus, abnormal mobility of the pupil, pupillary oscil- 
lations M 

alternate and spontaneous movements of contraction 
and of dilatation of the pupil L 

homonyme See : diplopie homonyme 

hemianopsie homonyme 

horizon retinien m. 

retinal horizon (Helmholtz), horizontal plane which 
passes through the transverse axis of the eyeball L 

horizontal See : hemianopsie horizontale 

Horner See: muscle de Horner 

syndrome de Claude Bernard-Horner 

houilleur See : nystagmus des houilleurs 

humble See : muscle humble 

humeur aqueuse f. 

aqueous humour M 

the anterior chamber is occupied by the aqueous humour, 
a liquid composed of water containing in solution a 
little albumin and a small quantity of glucose and salts 
found in all the secretions of the animal economy L 
See also : membrane de l'humeur aqueuse 

99 



humeur hyaloide f. 

vitreous humour, a transparent gelatinous mass behind 
the crystalline lens; it is the most voluminous of the 
media of the eye, of which it fills the two posterior 
thirds L 

humeur vitree f. 

vitreous humour, vitreous body, vitreous; one of the 
refringent media of the eye, transparent humour found 
in back of the crystalline lens HDT 
vitreous humour, a transparent gelatinous mass behind 
the crystalline lens; it is the most voluminous of the 
media of the eye, of which it fills the two posterior 
thirds L 

humide See: ophtalmie humide 

Hutchinson See : facies d'Hutchinson 

keratite d'Hutchinson 
triade d'Hutchinson 

hyalite f. 

hyalitis; inflammation of the vitreous humour and of 
the hyaloid membrane, spontaneous or traumatic L 

hyalitis f. 

Same as preceding entry 

hyalodeite f. 

Same as hyalite 

hyaloide 

f. the enveloping membrane of the vitreous humour L 
a. hyaloid M 

See also : artere hyaloide 
humeur hyaloide 
membrane hyaloide 
substance hyaloide 

hyaloidien, ienne 

hyaloid, which belongs to the vitreous humour L 
See also: artere hyalo'idienne 
canal hyaloidien 
cataracte hyalo'idienne 

hyaloidionialacie f. 

hyaloidiomalacia, softening of the vitreous humour L 

hyaloidioproptose f. 

hyaloidioproptosis ; ptosis, escape of the vitreous hu- 
mour L 

hyaloidite f. 

hyaloiditis, hyalitis ; inflammation of the vitreous hu- 
mour and of the hyaloid membrane, spontaneous or 
traumatic L 

100 



hyalonyxis f. 

hyalonyxis, process of the operation of cataract by 
lowering [pushing backward] L 

hydatide f. 

hydatid ; originally, a small encysted tumour of the up- 
per eyelid; later, any encysted tumour containing an 
aqueous and transparent liquid; still later, a vesicle 
softer than the tissue of the membranes, and more or 
less transparent, which develops in organs without ad- 
hering to their tissue; at present, a vesicle of variable 
size found in cavities covered by a serous membrane 
or in a parenchyma, particularly in the human liver, re- 
sulting from the encystment of an echinococcus that 
has reached its favourite site L 

hydatoide 

f. hyaloid membrane 
a. hyaloid L 

See also : membrane hydatoide 

hydrectasie f. 

hydrectasis ; distension by a serosity, by the aqueous 
humour L 

hydrophtalmie f. 

hydrophthalmia, infantile glaucoma M 
dropsy of the eye, infantile glaucoma; a disease which 
is ordinarily congenital, frequent in children, exception- 
al in adults, and often bilateral ; it consists in the dis- 
tension of the envelopes of the eyeball caused by hyper- 
secretion or the retention of the liquids that it contains ; 
the eye becomes larger and harder than in the natural 
state ; it ends by protruding beyond the eyesocket, and 
the eyelids can no longer cover it (buphthalmos) ; the 
pupil is dilated and not very mobile, and vision is 
gradually lost L 

hydropisie des yeux f. 

morbid accumulation of serous liquid in the eyes HDT 
hydrophthalmia L 

hydropisie sous-retinienne f. 

subretinal hydrops, which occurs in detachment of the 
retina L 

hydrorrhee f. 

hydrorrhoea, especially the flow of tears in purulent 
ophthalmia L 

hygroblepharique 

hygroblepharic, said of the excretory ducts of the lach- 
rymal gland and of the orifices through which they 
empty the tears below the eyelid [behind the upper 
eyelid] L 

101 



hygroblepharite f. 

hygroblepharitis, blepharitis with flow of tears L 

hygrocollyre m. 

liquid collyrium L 

hyophtalme 

hyophthalmic, said of a person whose eye has a narrow 
palpebral aperture like a pig's eye L 

hyophtalmie f. 

hyophthalmia, smallness of the eye L 

hyperauxesis iridienne f. 

hyperauxesis of the iris, thickening of the iris L 

hyperceratosis f. 

hyperkeratosis, hypertrophy of the cornea L 

hyperchroma m. 

hyperchroma ; fleshy excrescence which forms at the in- 
ternal angle of the eye, near the caruncle, and which 
may enlarge to the point of spreading the eyelids apart 
and rendering their movements difficult and incom- 
plete L 

hyperchromatopsie f. 

hyperchromatopsia, one of the names of pseudochro- 
maesthesia L 

hypermetrope 

a. hypermetropic 

s. a person with hypermetropia ; hypermetrope M 

hypermetropic f. 

hypermetropia, farsightedness, far sight, hyperopia; it 
generally results from too weak a development in 
length of the sclerotic M 

state of the eye opposed to brachymetropia; in it the 
light rays, instead of forming their focus upon the re- 
tina, after their refraction by the ocular media, proceed 
to meet beyond, most often because of a shortening of 
the optic axis L 

hypermetropic congenitale f. 

congenital hypermetropia L 

hypermetropic latente f. 

latent hypermetropia, which, with manifest hyperme- 
tropia, constitutes total hypermetropia; the difference 
between manifest hypermetropia and measurement ob- 
tained after instillation of atropine M 
here disturbances in vision are practically nonexistent, 
because an attempt at accomodation suffices to prevent 
them L 

hypermetropic manifeste f. 

manifest hypermetropia, which, with latent hyperme- 
tropia, constitutes total hypermetropia; the degree of 

102 



9m 



hypermetropia determined by subjective examination 
with test lenses M 

hypermetropic totale f. 

total hypermetropia, constituted by latent hyperme- 
tropia and manifest hypermetropia M 

hypermetropique 

hypermetropic, referable to hypermetropia M 
See also : astigmatisme hypermetropique 

hypermur See : cataracte hypermure 

hyperope 

synonym of hypermetropic L 

hyperopie f. 

synonym of hypermetropia L 

hyperphorie f. 

hyperphoria M 

hyperplasique See : keratite hyperplasique 

hypertonic f. 

hypertonia, increased intraocular tension M 

hyphema m. 

hypoaema, hyphaemia ; when the red corpuscles which 
pass into the lower angle of the anterior chamber are 
numerous, they fall into the lower angle of the anterior 
chamber and form there a red spot shaped like a cres- 
cent, whose lower edge is convex, known as hypoaema 
or hyphaemia M 

hypohema m. 

hypoaema, hyphaemia; effusion of blood into the an- 
terior chamber of the eye ; when it results from blows 
upon the eye, it is resorbed quickly, in general, with or 
without the use of cold local applications ; but when 
it appears during glaucoma, it is more serious, by rea- 
son of the tendency to haemorrhage that it denotes L 

hypophtalmie f. 

hypophthalmia ; inflammation of the lov/er part of the 
eye, below the lower eyelid, or else of the lower eyelid 
itself L 

hypopyon m. 

hypopyon, a purulent exudate that has collected in the 
lower part of the anterior chamber; when the cellular 
elements which pass into the aqueous humour are nu- 
merous, they fall into the lower angle of the anterior 
chamber and form there a yellowish white spot shaped 
like a crescent, whose lower edge is convex, known as 
a hypopyon M 

a word which may signify any collection of pus, and 
which has acquired the special sense of effusion of pus 
into the anterior chamber of the eye; a hypopyon may 

103 



be traumatic in origin, like hypoaema, but most often 
it is a complication of ulcerous keratitis or of purulent 
iridochoroiditis L 
hyposcleral, ale 

hyposcleral M 
hyposphagme m. 

hyposphagma, effusion of blood under the conjunctiva, 
ecchymosis of the eye L 
hypotonic f. 

hypotonia, hypotonus, hypotony; diminution in ocular 
tension M 

softening of the eyeball L 
hysterie oculaire f. 

ocular hysteria, reflex ocular troubles which do not 
really exist (amaurosis or amblyopia, disturbances in 
accomodation, photophobia, and blepharospasm) M 
hysterique See : amaurose hysterique 
amblyopic hysterique 
blepharospasme hysterique 
cecite hysterique 
irritation oculaire hysterique 
larmoiement hysterique 
ophtalmoplegie hysterique 
ptosis pseudo-paralytique hysterique 



illusion d'optique f. 

optic illusion, an errour of the sense of sight regarding 
the condition of bodies ; it may be natural, as a mirage, 
or artificial, as the illusion produced by optic instru- 
ments which invert the image of objects L 

image consecutive f. 

after-image; light impression which persists upon the 
retina after the disappearance of the light which pro- 
duced the excitation ; if, after having looked at the sun 
or a brilliant flame, one quickly shuts his eyes, the lat- 
ter still retain the image of the luminous body for a 
very short time L 

image retinienne f. 

retinal image, the image formed upon the retina by ex- 
terior objects L 

images de Purkinje f. 

Purkinje-Sanson's images, a series of reflected images 
arising from the difference in the index of refraction of 
the cornea, the aqueous humour, the crystalline lens, 

104 



and the vitreous humour when the pupil is illuminated 
in a certain way; three or five images are seen very 
distinctly M 

images de Purkinje-Sanson f. 

Purkinje-Sanson's images; images given by the surface 
of the ocular media functioning as mirrors ; in explora- 
tion of the eye, the pupil of the eye to be observed is 
previously dilated with belladonna and the patient is 
placed in a totally dark room ; if the crystalline lens is 
not opaque, a candle placed a short distance away from 
the eye observed forms three images there ; if the crys- 
talline lens is opaque, the small inverted image fur- 
nished by the posterior concavity of the crystalline lens 
no longer exists, and there remain only the upright 
images formed upon the cornea and upon the anterior 
surface of the lens that has become opaque L 
images de Sanson f. 

Purkinje-Sanson's images, a series of reflected images 
arising from the difference in the index of refraction of 
the cornea, the aqueous humour, the crystalline lens, 
and the vitreous humour when the pupil is illuminated 
in a certain way ; three or five images are seen very dis- 
tinctly M 
impetigineux See : conjonctivite impetigineuse 

keratite impetigineuse 
inclusion See : conjonctivite a inclusions 

ophtalmie a inclusions 
inegalite pupillaire f. 

pupillary inequality M 
infantile See : glaucome infantile 
inferieur See : canal lacrymal inferieur 
conus inferieur 
cul-de-sac inferieur 
droit inferieur 
oblique inferieur de l'oeil 
paroi orbitaire inferieure 
paupiere inferieure 
point lacrymal inferieur 
inferogyre See: spasme des inferogyres 
inflammatoire See: glaucome primitif inflammatoire 
infrasourcilier, ere 

infrasuperciliary, referable to the region below the eye- 
brow M 
iniope m. 

iniops; double monster, which has two bodies joined 
above the umbilicus, and whose head, incompletely 

105 



double, bears on one side a complete face and on the 
other side an imperfect eye, with one or two ears L 
injecte, ee 

bloodshot (said of the conjunctiva) M 
See also: yeux injectes 
injection con joncti vale f. 

a bloodshot condition of the conjunctiva M 
innomine See: glande innominee 

tunique innominee 
intermittent See : keratite nevralgique intermittente 
interne See : angle interne 

canthus interne 
capsule interne 
chalazion interne 
commissure interne 
corps genouille interne 
droit interne 
oculo-musculaire interne 
ophtalmoplegie interne 
orgeolet interne 
interpupillaire 

interpupillary M 
inter-sourcillier, ere 

between the eyebrows B 
See also : espace inter-sourcillier 
interstitiel See: cataracte interstitielle 

keratite interstitielle 
intra-oculaire 

intraocular, inside of the eye M 
See also : tension intra-oculaire 
intra-orbitaire 

intraorbital, inside of the eyesocket M 
intus See : orbito-intus-scleroticien 
inverse See : astigmatisme inverse 
iridareosis f. 

iridareosis, atrophy of the iris L 
iridauxesis f. 

iridauxesis, iridoncosis, hypertrophy of the iris L 
iridectomedialyse f. 

iridectomedialysis ; method of making an artificial pu- 
pil which consists in detaching and in excising a part 
of the periphery of the iris L 
iridectomie f. 

iridectomy ; excision of a part of the iris, used : 1 — for 
establishing an artificial pupil; 2 — as a preventive and 
curative measure in diseases of the eyeball where the 
ocular pressure is exaggerated (glaucoma, iridochoroi- 

106 



ditis) ; 3 — as an accessory step in certain operations, 
particularly the de Graefe process for cataract, by 
means of linear extraction [capsulotomy] L 
See also: couteaux a iridectomie 
sclerecto-iridectomie 

iridectomie antiglaucomateuse f. 

antiglaucomatous iridectomy M 

iridectomie optique f. 
optic iridectomy M 

iridelcosis f. 

iridelcosis, ulceration of the iris L 

iridenclise f. (Not iridencleisis in French) 

iridencleisis ; method of making an artificial pupil which 
consists in detaching a part of the periphery of the iris 
and in fastening the detached portion in the wound L 

irideremie f. 

irideremia, congenital absence of the iris L 

iridesis f. 

iridesis, iridodesis ; burying of the iris in a corneal inci- 
sion L 

iridien, enne 

iridic, irinic, which belongs to the iris L 
See also : hyperauxesis iridienne 
pigment iridien 

iridique 

iridic, irinic, which concerns the iris L 

iridite f. 

iritis L 

irido-capsulotomie f. 

iridocapsulotomy M 

iridocele f. 

iridocele ; tumour of the iris ; hernia of the iris through 
a wound or an ulcer of the cornea L 

irido-choroidite f. 

iridochoroiditis ; simultaneous inflammation of the iris 
and of the choroid, which often appears as a trans- 
formation and extension of a recurrent iritis or an 
earlier choroiditis, and whose development is influenced 
by syphilis, gout, and rheumatism L 

irido-choroidite purulente f. 

purulent iridochoroiditis, ophthalmitis, phlegmon of the 
eye L 

irido-ciliaire 

iridociliary M 

iridocolobome m. 

iridocoloboma, coloboma iridis ; fissure of the iris L 

107 



irido-corneen, enne 
iridocorneal M 
See also : angle irido-corneen 

iridocyclite f. 

iridocyclitis, the coexistence of precipitates at the pos- 
terior surface of the cornea upon Descemet's mem- 
brane with signs of iritis M 

iridodesis f. 

iridodesis, iridesis; operation whose aim is to displace 
the pupil by fastening the iris to the cornea L 

iridodialyse f. 

iridodialysis, detachment of the iris from its inser- 
tion M 

deglutination of part of the periphery of the iris, ef- 
fected at its attachment to the ciliary ligament in order 
to produce an artificial pupil, situated at the edge of 
the cornea, between the ciliary ligament and the de- 
tached edge of the iris L 

iridodonesis f. 

iridodonesis ; abnormal mobility of the iris in an ante- 
roposterior direction; quivering of the iris (observed 
in dislocation of the crystalline lens, in regressive cata- 
ract, and aphakia) M 

iridoncose f. 

iridoncosis, iridauxesis, hypertrophy of the iris L 

iridoplegie f. 

iridoplegia; moderate dilatation of the pupil with al- 
most complete immobility toward light stimuli and 
toward convergence, a state commonly following con- 
tusion of the eye; there are sometimes small tears 
starting from the edge of the iris and extending for 
some distance in the direction of the periphery of the 
iris M 

iridoptose f. 

iridoptosis, prolapse of the iris L 

iridorrhexie f. 

iridorhexis; tearing of the iris, practised when this 
membrane is strongly attached to the crystalline lens 
by total posterior synechias L 

iridoschisma m. 

iridoschisma ; division of the iris by congenital per- 
sistence of the aperture at the base of this membrane ; 
the cleft is sometimes wide enough to simulate a hole L 

iridotomedialyse f. 

iridotomedialysis ; method of making an artificial pupil 
which consists in detaching and in excising a part of 
the periphery of the iris L 

108 



iridotomie f. 

iridotomy ; method of creating an artificial pupil which 
consists in making a single or multiple incision of the 
iris with a lancet cataract knife, a needle, or scissors, 
through the cornea or through the sclerotic L 
See also : couteau a iridotomie 
irien, ienne 

referable to the iris; irinic, iridic M 
See also : colobome irien 

ecran irien 

enclavement irien 

heterochromie irienne 

membrane irienne 

nerfs iriens 

paralysie irienne 

prolapsus irien 

sphincter irien 

tuberculose irienne 
iris m. 

iris; circular membrane placed at the anterior part of 
the eyeball, in front of the crystalline lens, in the 
aqueous humour, where it forms a vertical partition 
which separates the two chambers; the middle part is 
pierced by an opening called pupil L 
coloured part of the eye, circular membrane placed in 
front of the crystalline lens HDT 
that coloured part of the eye which surrounds the pu- 
pil, and which sometimes presents circular and con- 
centric nuances A 
See also: colobome de Tiris 

decollement de l'iris 

hernie de l'iris 

pince a iris 

pincement de l'iris 
iris en tomate m. 

umbrella iris, funnel iris; forward projection of the iris 
(evinced in seclusion of the pupil) M 
irisopsie f. 

irisopsia ; aberration of the sense of sight which makes 
light appear surrounded by coloured rings L 
iritique 

iridic, irinic, which concerns the iris L 
iritis f. 

iritis; inflammation of the iris, called serous or paren- 
chymatous, depending on whether it is the surface or 
the body of the membrane which is inflamed L 
irregulier See: astigmatisme irregulier 

109 



irritation oculaire hysterique f. 

ocular irritation caused by hysteria; it is essentially 
characterised by irritation with slight vascularisation 
of the conjunctiva, without any other objective lesion; 
it most often follows a traumatism or a grave disease 
of one eye; it then attacks the second eye, which ac- 
counts for its classification under hysteria M 
isole See : ptosis isole 



jaune See : tache jaune 

Javal See : ophtalmometre de Javal 

ophtalmometre de Javal-Schioetz 

Jellinek See : signe de Jellinek 

jour See: abat-jour 

abat-jour verts 

jumelles de theatre f. 
operaglasses M 

juxtabulbaire 

juxtabulbar, next to the eyeball M 
See also: nevrite juxtabulbaire 



keratalgie f. 

keratalgia M 

keratalgie recidivante f. 

recurrent keratalgia; intermittent vesicular neuralgic 
keratitis; paroxysmal traumatic keratitis; this disease 
is essentially characterised by attacks of pain accom- 
panying corneal lesions and recurring after several 
weeks of cure ; its starting point is an insignificant ocu- 
lar traumatism M 

keratectomie f. 

keratectomy, excision of a portion of the cornea L 

keratique 

which concerns the cornea, its diseases, and so forth L 

keratite f. 

keratitis, inflammation of the cornea M 
See also: sclero-keratite 

sclero-keratite tuberculeuse 

keratite a pneumocoques f. 

keratitis caused by pneumococci ; it may have two dis- 
tinct clinical aspects, serpiginous ulcer and atypic kera- 
titis M 

110 



keratite atypique f. 

atypic keratitis, a clinical aspect of keratitis caused by 
pneumococci; it differs from serpiginous ulcer only by 
the more marked tendency of the infiltration to reach 
the cornea and to bring about perforation M 

keratite d'Hutchinson f. 

Hutchinson's keratitis, interstitial keratitis of young 
persons with hereditary syphilis M 

keratite en grillage f. 

lattice keratitis, an extremely rare hereditary and fami- 
lial disease characterised by opacities in the form of 
grillwork affecting the cornea and appearing after pu- 
berty M 

keratite filamenteuse f. 

keratitis characterised by the production of long and 
slender filaments that have developed at the expense 
of the epithelial layer of the cornea, more rarely of the 
bulbar conjunctiva, to which they adhere M 

keratite granuleuse f. 

granular keratitis, which may accompany trachoma M 

keratite hyperplasique f. 

hyperplastic keratitis, one aspect of leprous lesions of 
the cornea; it is characterised by an opalescence that 
augments in volume and presses back the anterior sur- 
face of the cornea M 

keratite impetigineuse f. 

keratitis referable to impetigo, phlyctenular keratitis M 

keratite interstitielle f. 

interstitial keratitis M 

keratite neuroparalytique f. 

neuroparalytic keratitis, which is essentially characte- 
rised clinically by anaesthesia of the ocular membranes 
and by ulceration of the cornea M 

keratite nevralgique intermittente f. 

intermittent vesicular neuralgic keratitis, recurrent 
keratalgia, paroxysmal traumatic keratitis ; this disease 
is essentially characterised by attacks of pain accom- 
panying corneal lesions and recurring after several 
weeks of cure ; its starting point is an insignificant ocu- 
lar traumatism M 

keratite panneuse f. 

keratitis referable to pannus, trachomatous pannus M 

keratite parenchymateuse f. 

parenchymatous keratitis, interstitial keratitis M 

keratite phlyctenulaire f. 

phlyctenular keratitis, keratitis referable to impetigo M 

111 



keratite ponctuee f. 

keratitis punctata, punctate keratitis M 

keratite punctiforme f. 

keratitis punctata, punctate keratitis M 

keratite traumatique paroxystique f. 

paroxysmal traumatic keratitis; intermittent vesicular 
neuralgic keratitis; recurrent keratalgia; this disease 
is essentially characterised by attacks of pain accom- 
panying corneal lesions and recurring after several 
weeks of cure ; its starting point is an insignificant ocu- 
lar traumatism M 

keratocele f. 

keratocele, hernia of the cornea; small tumour formed 
by Descemet's membrane when it projects through an 
ulceration of the cornea L 

keratocone m. 

keratoconus, characterised by a conic deformation of the 
cornea in which the deformation is more marked at the 
centre than at the periphery of this membrane ; it most 
often begins between the ages of twelve and thirty M 

keratoglobe m. 

keratoglobus, globular staphyloma, or globular cornea ; 
distension of the cornea, which becomes hemispheric 
and generally remains transparent L 

keratoide 

keratoid, which resembles the cornea L 

keratomalacie f. 

keratomalacia ; softening of the cornea which ordinarily 
results from acute or chronic keratitis, but which some- 
times appears very rapidly in lymphatic persons weak- 
ened by poverty and a bad diet; this softening is fol- 
lowed by staphyloma of the cornea L 

keratomycose f. 

keratomycosis, corneal lesions produced by the pene- 
tration and the development of fungi in the substance 
of the cornea M 

keratomycosis is due to the development of an asper- 
gillus in the cornea L 

keratonyxis f. 

keratonyxis, lowering or crushing of the crystalline lens 
by means of a corneal incision L 

keratoplastie f. 

keratoplasty, plastic surgery of the cornea M 
restoration of the cornea by heteroplasty, namely, by 
transposition of a healthy cornea of a calf or sheep to 
take the place of the altered cornea L 

112 



keratoscopie f. 

keratoscopy, examination of the cornea; pupilloscopy, 
retinoscopy, and skiascopy ; determination of the static 
refraction of the eye by the play of the shadows that 
one observes when one throws light [through the pu- 
pil] on the fundus oculi with the ophthalmoscopic mir- 
ror L 

keratoscopique 

keratoscopie, referable to keratoscopy or to the kera- 
toscope M 

keratotome m. 

keratome, keratotome, cataract knife; name given to 
various instruments for incising the clear cornea dur- 
ing the operation for cataract by extraction L 

keratotomie f. 

keratotomy ; incision of the cornea pellucida ; this name 
is given to the general process of cataract extraction 
by means of a corneal incision L 

kibisitome m. 

cystitome; instrument designed to open the capsule of 
the crystalline lens, in the operation of cataract by ex- 
traction L 

Knies See : soudure de Knies 

kyste dermoide m. 

dermoid cyst, the most frequent congenital affection of 
the region of the eyebrow, whose favourite site is the 
temporal termination of the eyebrow ; a cyst containing 
tissues or appendages derived from the epiblast M 

kysteux See : cataracte kysteuse 

kystitome m. 

cystitome, instrument designed to open the capsule of 
the crystalline lens in the operation of cataract L 

kystitomie f. 

the step in keratotomy which consists in opening the 
capsule of the crystalline lens L 



lac lacrymal m. 

lachrymal space; space between the caruncula lacri- 
malis and the inside of the edge of the eyelid, in which 
the tears accumulate before penetrating into the tear 
ducts L 
lacrymal, ale 

lachrymal, referable to tears M 

113 



See also : appareil lacrymal 
artere lacrymale 
atresie lacrymale 
canal lacrymal inferieur 
canal lacrymal superieur 
canalicule lacrymal 
caroncule lacrymale 
conduit lacrymal 
conduit naso-lacrymal 

conjonctivite lacrymale a pneumocoques des 
nouveau-nes 

conjonctivite lacrymale a streptocoques 
conjonctivite lacrymale du nouveau-ne 
dacryocystite lacrymale a streptocoques 
ecoulement lacrymal 
eversion des points lacrymaux 
fistule lacrymale 
glande lacrymale 
glande lacrymale orbitaire 
glande lacrymale palpebrale 
glandes lacrymales 
glandes lacrymales orbitaires 
gouttiere lacrymale 
grenouillette lacrymale 
lac lacrymal 
liquide lacrymal 
nerf lacrymal 
os lacrymal 
pericystite lacrymale 
pericystite lacrymale a streptocoques 
point lacrymal 
point lacrymal inferieur 
point lacrymal superieur 
points lacrymaux 
retreci lacrymal 
retrecissement lacrymal 
sac lacrymal 
sonde a voies lacrymales 
sporotrichose lacrymale 
syphilis lacrymale 
tuberculose lacrymale 
tumeur lacrymale 
voies lacrymales 

lacrymine f. 

synonym of dacryolin; the organic substance of tears, 
which is not coagulated either by acids or by heat ; 

114 



«a 



when it is evaporated slowly in the open air, it is con- 
verted into an insoluble yellow substance L 

lacrymogene 

which produces tears (poison gas) M 

lacrymule f. 

little tear HDT 

ladrerie £. 

disease caused by the pork tapeworm of man, Taenia 
solium; the disease was long confused with leprosy, 
which Lazarus is supposed to have had ; the disease 
may necessitate enucleation of the eyeball when it de- 
velops in the posterior chamber; see also "cysti- 
cerque" L 

lagophtalmie f. 

lagophthalmos, lagophthalmia, hare's eye; malforma- 
tion of the upper eyelid which prevents it from cover- 
ing the eyeball, and which results from a paralysis of 
the orbicular muscle of the eyelids or from a retraction 
of the upper eyelid which itself follows a wound, a 
burn, a tumour, or a swelling of the conjunctiva L 
retraction of the upper eyelid which prevents it from 
entirely covering the eye HDT 

disease of the eyelids, which are so retracted that the 
eye remains open during sleep, as in rabbits A 

lagophtalmos m. 

lagophthalmos, lagophthalmus, hare's eye M 

lagophtalmos paralytique m. 

paralytic lagophthalmos, lack of occlusion resulting 
from paralysis of the orbicular muscle M 

laiteux See : cataracte laiteuse 

lame criblee f. 

lamina cribrosa sclerae M 

lamellaire See: cataracte lamellaire 

lames corneennes f. 

the layers of the cornea M 

larme f. 

tear; excretory humour which lubricates the eyeball 
and facilitates its movement in the orbit L 
drop of limpid humour which starts from the eye as 
the result of a strong impression, whether physical or 
moral A 

See also : essuyer ses larmes 
reservoir des larmes 
secretion des larmes 

115 



larmier m. 

angle of the eye in which the lachrymal gland is 
found HDT 

a term of drawing, said of the angle of the eye which 
is closest to the nose and in which the tears form A 

larmieres f. 

apertures below the eyes of the stag, from which es- 
capes a yellow liquor termed "stag's tears"; some per- 
sons say "larmiers" A 

larmiers m. 

parts which, in the horse, represent man's temples A 

larmoiement m. 

lachrymation, reflux of the lachrymal liquid onto the 
cheek M 

larmoiement emotif m. 

weeping caused by strong emotion, pain, or a neuro- 
pathic state M 

larmoiement hysterique m. 

weeping caused by hysteria M 

larmoyant, ante 

referable to lachrymation ; weeping, running, watery, 
in tears; which makes tears flow M 

larmoyer 

to weep, to shed tears, to cry, to run, to water M 
to have tears continually in the eyes HDT 
to weep, to shed tears (familiar) A 

latent See : hypermetropic latente 
strabisme latent 

lateral See : deviation oculaire laterale 
eclairage lateral 

lateralite See : crise oculogyre de lateralite 

lateropulsion oculaire f. 

parablepsia, ocular lateropulsion, part of ocular brady- 
kinesia [one of the complications and sequelae of epi- 
demic encephalitis] B 

lenticone m. 

lenticonus M 

special deformation of the crystalline lens L 

lenticone anterieur m. 

anterior lenticonus (much rarer than posterior lenti- 
conus) M 

lenticone posterieur m. 

posterior lenticonus M 

lenticulaire See : capsulo-lenticulaire 

cataracte capsulo-lenticulaire 
ganglion lenticulaire 

116 



lentille f. 

crystalline lens; lens M 

in terms of dioptrics, said of a lens cut in the form of a 

lentil A 

See also: telescope a lentilles 

lentille aplanetique f. 

aplanatic lens, where no aberration of sphericity oc- 
curs HDT 

lens composed of flint glass and of crown glass, so con- 
structed as to prevent any aberration of sphericity L 

lentille astigmatique f. 

astigmatic lens; glass taken from a cylindric surface 
and cut so as to reestablish the equilibrium between 
the unequal meridians of the eye affected with astigma- 
tism ; lens whose refringent surface is cylindric, and 
which is designed to correct astigmatism L 

lentille cristalline f. 

crystalline lens ; the transparent lenticular body situ- 
ated in the eyeball, behind the pupil, and designed to 
refract the rays of light to make them converge upon 
the retina HDT 

lentite f. 

lentitis, name given to a pretended inflammation of the 
crystalline lens, which does not exist L 

lepreux See : blepharite lepreuse 

leucemique See : retinite leucemique 

leucite f. 

leucitis, sclerotitis, scleritis L 

leucoma m. 

leukoma, albugo, opacity of the cornea L 

leucoma gerontoxon m. 
arcus senilis L 

leucome m. 

leukoma, opacity of the whole depth of the cornea M 
leukoma, albugo, opacity of the cornea L 

leucome central m. 

central leukoma M 

lievre See: oeil-de-lievre 

ligament pectine m. 

ligamentum pectinatum iridis M 

limbe sclero-corneen m. 

sclerocorneal limbus M 

limbique See: sclero-limbique 

lipome sous-conjonctival m. 

subconjunctival lipoma, a congenital affection of the 
conjunctiva M 

117 



lippitude f. 

lippitude, bleareyedness ; bleared condition of the eye- 
lids due to a superabundant secretion of the sebaceous 
humour furnished by the Meibomian glands; it is a 
symptom of blepharitis L 
state of one who has seborrhoeic eyes HDT 

liquide See: cataracte liquide 

liquide lacrymal m. 
tears M 

lithiase f. 

lithiasis, formation of calcareous concretions in the tis- 
sue of the eyelids HDT 

lithiase conjonctivale f. 

lithiasis conjunctivae; a hard conjunctival concretion 
composed of a hyalin mass (not true lithiasis) M 

litteral See : cecite litterale 

long See : avoir la vue longue 

lunette de longue vue 
nerfs ciliaires longs 
vue longue 

longue-vue f. 

glasses with which one sees remote objects ; glass which 
makes objects appear close HDT 
See also : lunette de longue vue 

lorgner 

to look at objects or persons through a lorgnette HDT 

lorgnette f. 

operaglass ; small portable glass for viewing remote ob- 
jects, either single or double, used principally at the 
theatre HDT 

lorgnette, small glass for seeing objects not far away A 
See also : lunettes-lorgnettes 

lorgnettes de theatre f. 
operaglass M 

lorgnon m. 

monocle; small glass with a single lens, usually worn 
suspended on a ribbon A 

eyeglass; a lens concave for nearsighted persons and 
convex for farsighted persons; sort of glass without 
sidearms, either single (monocle) or double (binocle) ; 
when double, it is held before the eyes by a small handle 
(binocle) or by a spring grasping the nose (pince- 
nez) HDT 

loriot See : compere-loriot 
louche 

s. a crosseyed person HDT 

118 



a. strabismic, crosseyed, squinteyed, whose two eyes 
do not look in the same direction HDT 
said of an individual affected with strabismus L 
whose eyes look in different directions ; said also of 
the eyes themselves and of the gaze A 
See also : vue louche 

loucher 

to squint, to have eyes which do not look in the same 
direction, to be crosseyed HDT 

loucherie f. 

state of a person who is crosseyed HDT 

louchette f. 

spectacles for the correction of strabismus M 
apparatus for those with strabismus, consisting in cov- 
ering the stronger eye temporarily so that the other, 
obliged to act alone, will grow strong HDT 

louchon m. and f. 

one who is crosseyed HDT 

loupe f. 

biconvex lens which serves to enlarge objects HDT 
lens L 

luire 

to shine, to gleam, to appear luminous, to have lumi- 
nous reflections HDT 

lumiere f. 

light HDT 

See also : prive de la lumiere 

lumiere eclatante f. 

brilliant, glaring light HDT 

luminaire m. 

eyes (said in pleasantry) HDT 

lumineux See : sensibilite lumineuse 

lunatique See : cheval lunatique 

lunetier m. 

maker or seller of spectacles ; one who wears glasses 
(said in pleasantry) HDT 

lunetiere f. 

Same as preceding entry 

lunette f. 

spectacles, glasses HDT 

instrument composed of one or of several lenses, cut in 
such a way as to make objects appear larger than they 
do to the naked eye, or to render vision more distinct A 
See also : arcade d'une lunette 
champ d'une lunette 

119 



lunette achromatique f. 

achromatic lens, lens which allows one to see objects 
without any foreign colour A 

lunette d'approche f. 

glass which makes objects appear close HDT 

glass which magnifies objects or makes them appear 

closer A 

lunette de longue vue f. 

glasses with which one sees remote objects ; glass which 
makes objects appear close HDT 
glass which magnifies objects or makes them appear 
closer A 

lunette panoptique f. 

panoptic spectacles ; spectacles with an ordinary frame, 
in which, instead of lenses, there are two plates or discs 
of blackened copper with a horizontal slit covered by a 
movable plate ; in the centre is a hole the size of a pin- 
point through which light reaches the retina ; by keep- 
ing the two holes 8 to 10 millimetres apart, normal vi- 
sion is no longer limited to short distances ; farsighted 
persons enjoy the same privilege and distinguish the 
closest and the smallest objects; nearsighted persons 
also have the advantage of clearly distinguishing re- 
mote objects L 

lunetterie f. 

the manufacture of spectacles M 

lunettes f. 

spectacles, eyeglasses, glasses M 
two spectacle lenses assembled in the same frame in 
such a way as to be able to be placed in front of the 
two eyes A 

See also : chausser ses lunettes 
conserver ses lunettes 
eczema en lunettes 
mettre des lunettes 
monture de lunettes 
paire de lunettes 
verres de lunettes 

lunettes de cheval f. 

blinders, circular pieces of felt placed over the eyes of 
a timid horse HDT 

lunettes d'essai f. 

spectacle frame used for the reading of test types M 

lunettes de myope f . 

spectacles having concave lenses, for use by nearsight- 
ed persons HDT 

120 



lunettes de presbyte f. 

spectacles having convex lenses, for use by farsighted 

persons HDT 
lunettes stenopeiques f. 

stenopaeic glasses (for use in keratoconus) M 
lunettes-lorgnettes f. 

spectacles in the form of a lorgnette, used for viewing 

remote objects M 
lunettier m. 

maker or seller of spectacles HDT 
lupus conjonctival m. 

lupus of the conjunctiva M 
lusciosite f. 

synonym of myopia L 
lutea centralis f. 

yellow spot, macula flava; it is located inside of the 

papilla and occupies the optic centre of the eye ; in form 

it is oval, transverse; it is at most 3 millmetres long; 

its centre is sunken (foramen caecum, fovea centralis) 

and has wrongly been considered as a veritable hole 

(foramen centrale Soemmeringii) L 
luxation du cristallin f. 

dislocation of the crystalline lens; it consists in any 

displacement of this organ after the total or partial 

rupture of its adhesions L 



macropie f. 

macropia, macropsia; disturbance of the accomodation 
which causes objects to appear larger than they are in 
reality L 

macropsie f. 

Same as preceding entry 

macroscopique 

macroscopic, said of that which is visible with the naked 
eye, as opposed to microscopic L 

macula f. 

macula; Latin word signifying spot, and kept in ana- 
tomy to designate a very limited region of the retina; 
lutea centralis, a yellow spot inside of the papilla, occu- 
pying the optic centre of the eye, oval, at most 3 milli- 
metres long; its centre is sunken L 

macula flava f. 

yellow spot, lutea centralis; it is located inside of the 
papilla and occupies the optic centre of the eye ; in form 

121 



it is oval, transverse; it is at most 3 millimetres long; 
its centre is sunken (foramen caecum, fovea centralis) 
and has wrongly been considered as a veritable hole 
(foramen centrale Soemmeringii) L 

maculaire 

referable to the macula lutea M 
See also : choro'idite maculaire 
colobome maculaire 
retinite maculaire atrophique 

madarose f. 

madarosis ; falling of hairs, and particularly of the eye- 
lashes; ciliary blepharitis L 

Maddox See : baguette de Maddox 

main See : face-a-main 

mal See : avoir mal aux yeux 

malade cataracte m. 

a patient with cataract HDT 

maladie de Basedow f. 

exophthalmic goitre M 

maladie de Donders f. 

Donders's disease, Donders's glaucoma, simple atrophic 
glaucoma L 

maladie de Graves f. 

exophthalmic goitre, Graves's disease M 

maladie de Mickulicz f. 

Mikulicz's disease, painless hypertrophy of both the 
lachrymal glands and the salivary glands [Morax in- 
correctly spells Mikulicz with an additional c : Micku- 
licz] M 

maladie de Mobius f. 

Moebius's disease; ophthalmoplegic migraine, recur- 
rent periodic oculomotor paralysis; syndrome charac- 
terised by attacks of migraine during several days, and 
followed by paralysis of the third pair of cranial nerves 
(ptosis, external strabismus, diplopia, paralysis of the 
accomodation, pupillary dilatation) ; this paralysis, 
temporary at first, persists in proportion as the attacks 
are repeated, and may even become complete and per- 
manent L 

malin, igne See : encanthis maligne 
manifeste See : hypermetropic manifeste 
marge ciliaire f. 

ciliary margin M 
marginal See : chalazion marginal 
tarsite marginale 

122 



marginoplastie f. 

marginoplasty, plastic surgery of the margin of the eye- 
lid M 
See also : tarso-marginoplastie 

Mariotte See : tache de Mariotte 

massue See : bacille massue de Weeks 

mecanique See : strabisme mecanique 

megalocornee f. 

megalocornea, exaggerated development of the cornea : 
it is observed in infantile glaucoma M 

megalophtalmie f. 

megalophthalmus, increased volume of the eye; it is 
observed in infantile glaucoma M 
congenital anomaly of the eyeball consisting in a ge- 
neral enlargement of all its diameters L 

megalopsie f. 

megalopsia, macropia, macropsia; visual disturbance 
which makes objects appear larger than they are L 

meibomien, ienne 

Meibomian, which concerns the glands of Meibomius L 
See also : acne meibomienne 

adenite meibomienne 
orgeolet meibomien 

Meibomius See : glande de Meibomius 

melanine f. 

melanin, black pigment of the eye, inter alia L 

membrane albuginee de l'oeil f. 
sclerotic A 

membrane capsulo-pupillaire f. 

capsulopupillary membrane, a portion of the pupillary 
membrane extending from the point where the branches 
of the capsular artery meet it to the circumference of 
the pupil ; it is not a special membrane, rather it is con- 
stituted by capillaries that are elongated without being 
joined together L 

membrane choroide f. 

choroid, chorioid ; the internal membrane, covered with 
a black substance (pigment), which lines the eye HDT 
middle membrane of the eye, situated between the 
sclerotic and the retina; in back it has an opening for 
the passage of the optic nerve; in front it continues 
with the iris L 

membrane clignotante f. 

third eyelid; semitransparent membrane which, in 
birds, is placed vertically at the inner angle of the eye, 
between the eyeball and the eyelids, and which the ani- 
mal draws at will like a curtain to protect itself from 

123 



the light; in human beings the winking membrane is 
represented by the plica semilunaris conjunctivae L 
membrane which, in certain animals — such as birds, 
cats, et cetera — , is placed between the eyeball and the 
eyelids, and which they extend in front of their pupil 
at will, in order to protect themselves from too strong 
a light A 

membrane de Demours f. 

Demours's membrane, membrana Descemeti, Desce- 
met's membrane L 

membrane de Descemet f. 

membrana Descemeti, Descemet's membrane M 

membrane de l'huxneur aqueuse f. 

membrana Descemeti, Descemet's membrane L 

membrane de Ruysch f. 

Ruysch's membrane, Ruyschian membrane, lamina 
choriocapillaris L 

membrane hyaloide f. 

hyaloid membrane, the envelope of the vitreous hu- 
mour; it was long believed that the vitreous humour 
was surrounded by a membrane, but in reality it has 
no distinct membrane, only a condensation of the peri- 
pheral layers L 

membrane hydatoide f. 

membrana Descemeti, Descemet's membrane L 

membrane irienne f. 
iris M 

membrane nyctitante f. 

third eyelid; semitransparent membrane which, in 
birds, is placed vertically at the inner angle of the eye, 
between the eyeball and the eyelid, and which the ani- 
mal draws at will like a curtain to protect itself from 
the light; in human beings the winking membrane is 
represented by the plica semilunaris conjunctivae L 

membrane posterieure f. 

membrana Descemeti, Descemet's membrane L 

membrane pupillaire f. 

pupillary membrane, membrane which closes the pupil 
in the foetus A 

very vascular fine membrane which closes the pupil 
during a great part of intrauterine life and disappears 
toward the seventh month of pregnancy, by atrophy 
and resorption from the centre to the circumference ; it 
is formed of an amorphous or barely streaked substance, 
transparent, firm, traversed by a fine-meshed network 
of capillaries all with a single tunic and with longi- 
tudinal nuclei L 

124 



membrane vitree f. 

membrana Descemeti, Descemet's membrane L 

membrane vitreuse f. 

membrana Descemeti, Descemet's membrane L 

membranine f. 

membranin; name given by Morner to the substance 
which forms the capsule of the crystalline lens; this 
substance, of an albuminoid nature, is insoluble in wa- 
ter, salt solutions, and diluted acids; it does not pre- 
sumably belong in any of the known groups L 

meme See : diplopie de meme nom 

meningo-encephalocele f. 

meningoencephalocele, hernial protrusion of the brain 
and meninges ; a very rare congenital affection causing 
pronounced deformation of the eyebrow; its habitual 
site is the internal and upper angle of the eyesocket ; it 
results from a hernia of the dura mater with or without 
cerebral substance M 

meridien de Toeil m. 

meridian of the eye, any plane which passes through the 
optic axis L 

mesophryon m. 

mesophryon, glabella, glabellum ; the part of the face 
lying between the two eyebrows L 

mesoroptre accomodatif m. 

mesoropter of accomodation, field of accomodation, 
scale of accomodation ; distance, varying with the indi- 
vidual and the size of the objects, over which the ob- 
jects are seen distinctly and without fatigue L 

mesoroptre musculaire m. 

muscular mesoropter; greater or less degree of con- 
traction of the internal rectus muscles of the eye which 
causes the variable interval that separates the two pu- 
pils during accomodation, from the almost parallel state 
of the optic axes in long distance vision to the most 
considerable degree of convergence required for ex- 
amining small and near objects, especially in near- 
sighted persons L 

metallique See : taches metalliques de la cornee 

metamorphopsie f. 

metamorphopsia, apparent deformation of objects 
viewed M 

defect in vision which causes objects to appear changed 
in their form or in their size ; it is an optic illusion L 

125 



metastatique See : choroidite metastatique 

conjonctivite blennorragique metastati- 
que 
ophtalmie metastatique 

mettre des lunettes 

to put on glasses, to wear glasses HDT 

Mickulicz See : maladie de Mickulicz 

microcornee f. 

microcornea, arrested development of the cornea ob- 
served in cases of microphthalmia M 

microphtalme 

a. microphthalmic 

s. who is afflicted with microphthalmia L 

microphtalmie f. 

microphthalmia ; smallness of the eye due to a decrease 
in its different diameters, when the eye may be as small 
as a pea; the hypermetropic eye may be considered as 
the mildest degree of microphthalmia ; it is a congenital 
anomaly that may affect only one eye or, more rarely, 
both eyes, and that is accompanied by other malforma- 
tions of the eyelids, of the cranium, or of the eye- 
socket L 

micropie f. 

micropia, micropsia; disorder of accomodation which 
makes objects appear smaller than they are in reality L 

micropsie f. 

Same as preceding entry 

microscope See: ophtalmo-microscope 

migraine ophtalmique f. 

ophthalmic migraine M 

form of migraine which begins with the appearance, in 
the visual field, of a shining circular spot which is zig- 
zag or like a fortification in outline, animated by rapid 
movements (scintillating scotoma) ; then come lateral 
hemianopia, pains in one half of the head and particu- 
larly in the eye, nauseas, vomiting, and in serious cases 
numbness first limited to the head and then invading 
the face and affecting speech, causing a more or less 
complete aphasia L 

migraine ophtalmique accompagnee f. 

ophthalmic migraine accompanied by motor distur- 
bances in the articulation of words, or of the members 
(dysarthria, hemiparesis) M 

migraine ophtalmoplegique f. 

ophthalmoplegic migraine, called also recurrent or peri- 
odic oculomotor paralysis, and neuralgia with periodi- 
cally returning ocular paralysis; it really concerns 

126 



neither migraine nor ophthalmoplegia, but pain and 
oculomotor disturbances in connection with a simulta- 
neous lesion of the trigeminus nerve and of the third 
cranial nerve M 

syndrome characterised by attacks of migraine during 
several days, and followed by paralysis of the third pair 
of cranial nerves (ptosis, external strabismus, diplopia, 
paralysis of the accomodation, pupillary dilatation) ; 
this paralysis, temporary at first, persists in proportion 
as the attacks are repeated, and may even become com- 
plete and permanent L 

Mikulicz See : maladie de Mickulicz 

milieux oculaires m. 
ocular media M 

millet m. 

milium ; by analogy with millet seeds, the name given 
to small cysts formed by distension of the sebaceous 
glands of the hair follicles of the down of the eyelids; 
the cysts raise the fine skin of this region L 

milphose f. 

milphosis, milphae; falling of the eyelashes without 
disease of the eyelids L 

mirer 

to sight HDT 

mitte f. 

eye disease caused by vapours from latrines HDT 
effluvium latrinarum ; vernacular term for the gas 
which is exhaled from latrines and for the inflammation 
of the conjunctivae which it causes L 

mixte See : astigmatisme mixte 
cataracte mixte 
nystagmus mixte 

Mobius See : maladie de Mobius 
signe de Moebius 

monoblepsie f. 

monoblepsia, eye disease in which vision is distinct for 
each eye and confused with both eyes HDT 

monochromatique See : verres monochromatiques 

monocle m. 

monocle, small glass for but one eye ; a person who has 
but one eye ; in surgery, monoculus, a crossed bandage 
for keeping a local application upon one of the eyes, 
from 4 to 6 metres long L 
monocle; bandage covering one eye M 
single eyeglass; one who has but one eye (archa- 
ic) HDT 

127 



monoculaire 

monocular, uniocular, pertaining to or affecting but one 
eye, one-eyed M 

concerning but one of the two eyes L 
See also: diplopie monoculaire 
vision monoculaire 
monoeuliste m. and f. 

a person with only one eye (archaic) HDT 
monolateral See : strabisme monolateral 
monophtalme a. and s. 

synonym of "monocle", q. v. L 
monopse a. and s. 

who has but one eye L 
monopsie f. 

monopsia; monstrosity which consists in the presence 
of a single eye; sometimes both eyes are together in 
one eyesocket; sometimes there are two eyesockets 
very close together and communicating because no 
ethmoid septum exists ; monsters of this type are class- 
ed as cyclocephalians L 
monture de lunettes f. 

spectacle frame M 
monture d'essai f. 

spectacle frame (used for the reading of test types) M 
Morax See : bacille de Morax 

morbilleux See : blepharo-conjonctivite morbilleuse 
morgagnien See : cataracte morgagnienne 
moteur See : nerf moteur oculaire externe 
nerf oculo-moteur commun 
nerf oculo-moteur externe 
oculo-moteur 
oculo-moteur commun 
oculo-moteur externe 
paralysie oculo-motrice 

paralysie oculo-motrice periodique recidivante 
reflexe photomoteur 
moteur oculaire commun m. 

third cranial nerve, oculomotor nerve M 
See also : nerf moteur oculaire commun 
moteur oculaire externe m. 
sixth cranial nerve L 
See also : nerf moteur oculaire externe 
mou, molle See : cataracte demi-molle 

cataracte molle 
mouche f. 

coloured point which seems to pass before the eyes in 
certain eye diseases HDT 

128 



mouche volante f. 

muscae volitantes, myiodesopsia, myodesopsia, black 
specks seen in front of the eye M 

mouches volantes f. 

muscae volitantes, myiodesopsia, myodesopsia, black 
specks seen in front of the eye M 
muscae volantes, myiodopsia ; phenomenon characteris- 
ed by the perception of subjective images, spots, fila- 
ments, points — brilliant and coloured or dark (muscae 
volantes) — , which sometimes pass before the eyes dur- 
ing examination with a microscope, or when one looks 
through a pinhole in a card after looking at a brilliant- 
ly lighted object L 

muco-purulent See : conjonctivite muco-purulente 

mur See : cataracte mure 

muscle See : section du muscle ciliaire 

muscle ciliaire m. 

ciliary muscle ; soft, grayish ring, 6 to 7 millimetres in 
width, at the internal surface of the sclerotic, imme- 
diately behind its junction with the cornea; it has the 
form of an elongated triangle ; it is the active organ of 
accomodation L 
See also : section du muscle ciliaire 

muscle corrugateur m. 

corrugator supercilii, the muscle whose contraction 
wrinkles the eyebrow HDT 

muscle de Horner m. 

Horner's muscle ; small muscular bundle depending on 
the orbicular of the eyelids, described as a distinct mus- 
cle by Horner; paralysis of Horner's muscle, in facial 
paralysis, is the cause of epiphora; muscle which lies 
back of each of the tear ducts, and which adheres to 
them as well as to the reflexed tendon of the orbicular of 
the eyelids ; these muscles, which are parallel to the tear 
ducts throughout their length, contract and make the 
two ends of the ducts come closer together, diminish 
their calibre, and thus transport the tears toward the 
corresponding lachrymal sac L 

muscle droit superieur m. 

rectus superior muscle M 

muscle humble m. 

humble muscle, name given in former times to the rec- 
tus inferior of the eye because it lowers the eyeball L 

muscle orbiculaire m. 

orbicularis palpebrarum muscle, placed at the edge of 
the eyesocket HDT 

129 



muscle pathetique m. 

superior oblique muscle of the eye, obliquus superior 
muscle ; this muscle turns the eyeball upward and out- 
ward L 

muscle sourcilier m. 

frontosuperciliary muscle L 

muscles accomodateurs m. 

muscles of accomodation, ciliary muscles L 

muscles oculogyres m. 

oculogyric muscles, muscles that rotate the eye B 

musculaire See: mesoroptre musculaire 
oculo-musculaire 
oculo-musculaire externe 
oculo-musculaire interne 

musical See : alexie musicale 
cecite musicale 

mydriase f. 

mydriasis, extreme dilatation of one pupil or of both 
pupils M 

abnormal and permanent dilatation of the pupil, with 
persistent immobility of the iris L 

mydriatique 

a. mydriatic, producing mydriasis M 

which concerns mydriasis, afflicted with mydria- 
sis L 
m. mydriatic M 

drug which produces mydriasis (belladonna, atro- 
pine) L 

myiocephale m. 

myiocephalon, myiocephalum ; staphyloma in which the 
iris, caught in an accidental opening of the cornea, 
forms a very small rounded and blackish tumour like a 
fly's head L 

myiodopsie f. 

myiodopsia, muscae volantes ; phenomenon characteris- 
ed by the perception of subjective images, spots, fila- 
ments, points — brilliant and coloured or dark (muscae 
volantes) — , which sometimes pass before the eyes dur- 
ing examination with a microscope, or when one looks 
through a pinhole in a card after looking at a brilliantly 
lighted object L 

myocephale m. (L) See: myiocephale 

myodesopsie f. 

myiodesopsia, myodesopsia, muscae volitantes, black 
specks seen in front of the eye M 
Littre points out that this word is badly formed and 
should be "myiodopsie", q. v. 

130 



myometre m. 

myometer, ophthalmotrope ; instrument designed by 
Ruete for measuring the shortening of the muscles of 
the eye in cases of strabismus L 

myope 

a. myopic, nearsighted, afflicted with myopia L 
s. a person with myopia M 

myope, a nearsighted person HDT 
a man or woman who is very nearsighted and who 
cannot see remote objects without the aid of a con- 
cave lens A 
See also : lunettes de myope 

myopie f. 

myopia, nearsightedness M 
state of those who are nearsighted A 
state of the eye in which the light rays parallel to the 
axis meet before they reach the retina — instead of 
forming their focus on the retina — because of an elonga- 
tion of the optic axis ; clinically, myopia is characterised 
by inability to see distant objects distinctly, by clear 
and distinct perception of objects close at hand, and by 
the immediate improvement in vision given by inter- 
posing concave lenses between the eye and the objects 
previously seen confusedly L 

myopie axile f. 

axial myopia, exaggeration of the anteroposterior axis 
of the eye ; excess of refraction due to the length of 
the eye M 

myopie cristallinienne f. 
lenticular myopia M 

myopie du travail f. 

acquired myopia resulting from excessive study M 
myopie forte f. 

high myopia M 
myopie scolaire f. 

acquired myopia which develops during study at school ; 
"school" myopia M 
myopique 

myopic, nearsighted M 

which concerns myopia L 

See also : astigmatisme myopique 

astigmatisme myopique compose 
astigmatisme myopique simple 
choro'idite myopique 
croissant myopique 

131 



myo-presbyte 

a. referable to one who is affected with myopia in one 
eye and with presbyopia in the other 

m. one who is affected with myopia in one eye and 
with presbyopia in the other L 
myopsie f. 

said for "myiodopsie", q. v. L 
myose f. 

myosis ; permanent stricture of the pupil, with more or 

less marked immobility, the opposite of mydriasis; it 

is found in inflammations of the iris L 
myosis f. (L) See: myose 

myosis m. (Morax wrongly gives the gender as mascu- 
line ; it should be feminine) 

myosis, extreme contraction of one pupil or of both 

pupils M 
myotique 

a. myotic, producing myosis M 

m. myotic, drug causing pupillary contraction or myo- 
sis (morphine, eserine) L 



naevi pigmentaires m. 

naevi pigmentosi, small accumulations of pigment at 
the surface of the iris forming one or several brownish 
spots M 
naissance See: etre aveugle de naissance 
nasal See : canal nasal 
egout nasal 
naso-lacrymal, ale 

nasolachrymal W 
See also : conduit naso-lacrymal 
ne See : aveugle ne 

conjonctivite des nouveau-nes 
conjonctivite lacrymale a pneumocoques des nou- 
veau-nes 

conjonctivite lacrymale du nouveau-ne 
conjonctivite non gonococcique du nouveau-ne 
ophtalmie des nouveau-nes 
ophtalmie purulente des nouveau-nes 
pseudo-conjonctivite du nouveau-ne 
necrose palpebrale f. 

palpebral necrosis, a complication of erysipelas of the 
eyelids M 
negatif See : verre negatif 
neige See: ophtalmie des neiges 

132 



neomembraneux See: cataracte neomembraneuse 

nephelion m. 

nephelion, nephelium ; small spot which is located in 
the external layer of the cornea, and which allows the 
light rays to pass as if through a cloud; most often it 
consists in a cloud of fine fatty granulations ; it has no 
vascular injection and yields to astringent collyria con- 
taining zinc sulphate, to insufflations of calomel pow- 
der, of sodium sulphate, and of bismuth subnitrate; 
sometimes it has sufficed to touch the cornea with 
fused silver nitrate several times in succession at inter- 
vals of four or five days L 
superficial opacity of the cornea, nubecula M 
nerf See : atrophie du nerf optique 
axe du nerf optique 
bandelette des nerfs optiques 
excavation des nerfs optiques 

nerf abducteur m. 

external oculomotor nerve L 

nerf lacrymal m. 

lachrymal nerve; branch of Willis's ophthalmic nerve, 
which penetrates into the eyesocket through the highest 
part of the sphenoid fissure, traverses the lachrymal 
gland, in which it leaves many branches, and ends in 
the upper eyelid where its external third joins its two 
internal thirds L 

nerf moteur oculaire externe m. 
sixth cranial nerve L 

nerf oculo-moteur commun m. 

oculomotor nerve, third cranial nerve M 

nerf oculo-moteur externe m. 
sixth cranial nerve M 

nerf ophtalmique de Willis m. 

ophthalmic nerve of Willis, one of the three large 
branches leaving the gasserian ganglion; it penetrates 
into the outer wall of the sinus cavernosus, at the an- 
terior end of which it divides into three branches — 
nasal, frontal, and lachrymal — endowing the upper eye- 
lid, the conjunctiva, and the lachrymal gland with sen- 
sitiveness L 

nerf optique m. 

optic nerve; it is divided into two segments, the ante- 
rior or juxtabulbar segment and the posterior seg- 
ment M 

See also: atrophie du nerf optique 
axe du nerf optique 
excavation atrophique du nerf optique 

133 



nerf orbitaire m. 

orbital nerve, branch of the superior maxillary nerve L 
nerf palpebro-frontal m. 

frontal nerve, palpebrofrontal nerve ; the largest of the 
three branches furnished by the ophthalmic nerve L 
nerf pathetique m. 

patheticus nerve, fourth cranial nerve M 
it terminates in the obliquus superior muscle and go- 
verns its action on the eye L 

nerfs ciliaires m. 

ciliary nerves, iridic nerves ; a variable number of 
nerves originating in the nasal nerve and in the anterior 
part of the ophthalmic ganglion ; they are united in two 
bundles which pierce the sclerotic near the entrance of 
the optic nerve into the eye ; they become lost in the 
ciliary muscle, the iris, and the conjunctiva L 

nerfs ciliaires courts nx 

short ciliary nerves ; those ciliary or iridic nerves which 
originate in the anterior part of the ophthalmic gan- 
glion L 

nerfs ciliaires directs m. 

long ciliary nerves, direct ciliary nerves; those ciliary 
or iridic nerves which originate in the nasal nerve L 

nerfs ciliaires longs m. 

Same as preceding entry 

nerfs corneens m. 

corneal nerves M 

nerfs iriens m. 

ciliary nerves, iridic nerves ; a variable number of nerves 
originating in the nasal nerve and in the anterior part 
of the ophthalmic ganglion; they are united in two 
bundles which pierce the sclerotic near the entrance of 
the optic nerve into the eye; they become lost in the 
ciliary muscle, the iris, and the conjunctiva L 

nerfs optiques m. 
optic nerves L 
See also : bandelette des nerfs optiques 

nerveux See: asthenopie nerveuse 

neurasthenie oculaire f. 

ocular neurasthenia, nervous asthenopia, the chief 
symptoms of which are pain and fatigue M 

neuroparalytique See : keratite neuroparalytique 

nevralgique See : keratite nevralgique intermittente 

nevrite juxtabulbaire f. 

juxtabulbar neuritis M 

nevrite nicotino-alcoolique f. 

toxic amblyopia, nicotinoalcoholic amblyopia; a toxic 

134 



disease of the optic nerve caused by the use of tobacco 
and alcohol M 
nevrite oedemateuse f. 

oedematous neuritis, papillary stasis, choked disc, pa- 
pilledema, "Stauungspapille" ; an aspect — most often 
bilateral — in which the papillae are oedematous and the 
venous vessels of the retina are dilated as the result of 
an intracranial disturbance [such as pressure] M 
nevrite optique f. 

optic neuritis, papillitis, lesions of the anterior segment 
of the optic nerve, inflammation of the optic nerve M 
nevrite optique oxycephalique f. 

oxycephalic optic neuritis ; an affection of the optic 
nerve essentially characterised by tower skull or oxy- 
cephaly; it most often leads to blindness M 
nevrite retrobulbaire f. 

retrobulbar neuritis, central scotomata for colours ; dis- 
eases of the posterior segment of the optic nerve M 
nevropathique See: asthenopie nevropathique 
nez See : pince-nez 
nicotino-alcoolique See : amblyopic nicotino-alcoolique 

nevrite nicotino-alcoolique 
nictation f. 

winking, nictitation, nictation ; rapid and repeated wink- 
ing; involuntary movement by which the eyelids open 
and close continually and rapidly; sometimes it is mere- 
ly a rapid succession of untimely tremblings of the or- 
bicular muscle of the eyelids L 
nictitation f. (L) See : nictation 
nocturne See : vue nocturne 
noir See : cataracte noire 
nom See : diplopie de meme nom 
non See : cataracte non adherente 

conjonctivite non gonococcique du nouveau-ne 
nouveau-ne See : conjonctivite des nouveau-nes 

conjonctivite lacrymale a pneumocoques 
des nouveau-nes 

conjonctivite lacrymale du nouveau-ne 
conjonctivite non gonococcique du nou- 
veau-ne 

ophtalmie des nouveau-nes 
ophtalmie purulente des nouveau-nes 
pseudo-conjonctivite du nouveau-ne 
noyau See : fibre a noyaux 
nu See : a Toeil nu 
oeil nu 

135 



nuage m. 

nephelium and muscae volitantes L 

nubecule f. 

nubecula, spot in the external layers of the cornea, 
which makes one see objects as if through a cloud HDT 
nephelion, nephelium ; small spot which is located in 
the external layer of the cornea, and which allows the 
light rays to pass as if through a cloud ; most often it 
consists in a cloud of fine fatty granulations ; it has no 
vascular injection and yields to astringent collyria con- 
taining zinc sulphate, to insufflations of calomel pow- 
der, of sodium sulphate, and of bismuth subnitrate; 
sometimes it has sufficed to touch the cornea with fused 
silver nitrate several times in succession at intervals of 
four or five days L 

nucleaire See: cataracte nucleaire 

ophtalmoplegie nucleaire 

nyctalope m. and f. 

nyctalope, one afflicted with nyctalopia, one who dis- 
tinguishes objects only in obscurity HDT 
a man or woman who sees better by night than by 
day A 

nyctalopie f. 

nyctalopia, state of a nyctalope HDT 
eye disease which keeps one from seeing as well in the 
daytime as at night A 

disease characterised by the patient's power to distin- 
guish objects in a dim light or at night, whereas he 
cannot bear daylight; this was the sense in which 
Hippocrates and Galen used vvktoKco^ and vvKTakunia; 
but some physicians, and especially many lexicograph- 
ers, by deriving the word from vv£ = night + dXaos = 
blind + &\J/ = eye, claimed that this word signified 
inability to see at night, night blindness, or what is 
called hemeralopia. This interpretation and this ety- 
mology are rightly rejected. Nyctalopia is often caused 
by the extreme sensitiveness of the retina or of the iris, 
whence pupillary stricture results; it may also be the 
result of material obstacles to the arrival of the light 
rays at the fundus oculi, as the existence of an albugo 
upon the cornea, of central opacity of the crystalline 
lens or of its capsule, or of deficient pigmentation of 
the choroid L 

nyctation f. (L) See: nictation 

nyctitant, ante 

which winks L 

See also: membrane nyctitante 

136 



nyctitation f. (L) See: nictation 
nyctotyphlose f. 

nyctotyphlosis, caecitas nocturna, night blindness; 
synonym of hemeralopie L 

nystagme m. 

nystagmus ; spasmodic winking of the eyelids which re- 
sembles that of a person with an overpowering desire 
to sleep and making vain efforts to keep awake L 

nystagme de l'oeil m. 

nystagmus of the eye; oscillation of the eyeball about 
its horizontal or vertical axis, which is sometimes 
symptomatic of a lesion of the brain or of the upper 
part of the spinal cord ; it is often accompanied by dis- 
turbances in refraction or by lesions of the internal 
membranes of the eye L 

nystagmiforme 

nystagmiform, referable to nystagmus M 
See also : oscillations nystagmiformes 

nystagmus m. 

nystagmus ; spasmodic winking of the eyelids which 
resembles that of a person with an overpowering desire 
to sleep and making vain efforts to keep awake L 

nystagmus acquis m. 

acquired nystagmus, that which appears a certain time 
after birth M 

nystagmus auriculaire m. 

aural nystagmus, labyrinthine nystagmus M 

nystagmus congenital m. 

congenital nystagmus M 

nystagmus des houilleurs m. 

miners' nystagmus, a special form of ocular trembling 
observed in miners M 

nystagmus mixte m. 

mixed nystagmus, said if the trembling is lateral and 
rotatory at the same time M 

nystagmus oscillatoire m. 

oscillating nystagmus, in which the oscillation of the 
corneas in the palpebral aperture occurs horizontally M 

nystagmus reflexe m. 

reflex nystagmus, that which is provoked (studied by 
Barany) M 

nystagmus rotatoire m. 

rotatory nystagmus, characterised by a slight partial ro- 
tation of the cornea about the anteroposterior arc of 
the eyeball M 

137 



objectif See : scotome objectif 

oblique See : astigmatisme a axe oblique 
astigmatisme oblique 
grand oblique 
grand oblique de l'oeil 
petit oblique 
petit oblique de l'oeil 
vue oblique 

oblique inferieur de l'oeil m. 

inferior oblique muscle of the eye, obliquus inferior 
muscle; this muscle turns the eyeball upward and out- 
ward [inward] L 

oblique superieur de l'oeil m. 

superior oblique muscle of the eye, obliquus superior 
muscle; this muscle turns the eyeball upward and out- 
ward [inward] L 

obnubilation f. 

obnubilation, vertigo, dazzling, perception of objects 
through a cloud, which precedes or accompanies certain 
disorders of the circulation of the brain L 
morbid obscuration of the sight HDT 

occipital See: glabello-occipital 

occlusion f. 

in surgery, said of the action of closing the eyelids by 
means of strips of court plaster in cases of ophthalmia A 

occlusion de la pupille f . 

obliteration of the pupil L 

occlusion des paupieres f. 

occlusion of the eyelids ; closing of the palpebral aper- 
ture employed as a means of treating various eye dis- 
eases, notably keratites, especially when there is a great 
deal of photophobia; it is done with four or five strips 
of court plaster placed vertically and in parallel ; occlu- 
sion is also established by suture of the edges of the 
eyelids, maintained for months to prevent their cica- 
tricial retraction during the cure of ectropion L 

occlusion palpebrale f. 

palpebral occlusion, the act of closure or state of being 
closed of the eyelids M 

occlusion pupillaire f. 

occlusion of the pupil caused by an opaque fibrous 
membrane M 

oculaire 

ocular, referable to the eye M 
See also : aponevrose orbito-oculaire 
baignoire oculaire 
bassin oculaire 

138 



bradycinesie oculaire 

cavite oculaire 

colobome du plancher oculaire 

conjonctive oculaire 

coque oculaire 

coussinet oculaire 

deviation oculaire laterale 

deviation oculaire vers le haut 

douche oculaire 

globe oculaire 

hysterie oculaire 

intra-oculaire 

irritation oculaire hysterique 

lateropulsion oculaire 

milieux oculaires 

moteur oculaire commun 

moteur oculaire externe 

nerf moteur oculaire externe 

neurasthenie oculaire 

pemphigus oculaire 

perioculaire 

plancher oculaire 

prothese oculaire 

roue dentee oculaire 

spasmes oculaires vers le haut 

tension intra-oculaire 

tension oculaire 

vascularisation oculaire 
oculairement 

by means of the eyes (rare) HDT 
with the aid of one's own eyes A 
oculariste m. 

manufacturer of artificial eyes M 
he who prepares the pieces concerning ocular prothesis 
and the illustration of eye diseases L 
oculi See: speculum oculi 
oculiste m. 

oculist, ophthalmologist M 

he whose profession it is to know the different eye dis- 
eases and to treat them; the word is also employed as 
an adjective A 

a specialist in the treatment of eye diseases L 
oculistique 

a. oculistic, referable to the eye M 
f. oculistics ; synonym of ophthalmoiatry, that part 
of medicine which deals especially with eye dis- 
eases L 

139 



oculo-conjonctival, ale 

oculoconjunctival M 
oculogyre 

oculogyric, making the eye rotate B 

See also : crise oculogyre de lateralite 
crises oculogyres 
muscles oculogyres 
oculo-moteur, trice 

oculomotor M 

See also : nerf oculo-moteur commun 
nerf oculo-moteur externe 
paralysie oculo-motrice 

paralysie oculo-motrice periodique recidi- 
vante 
oculo-moteur commun m. 

oculomotor nerve, third cranial nerve M 
oculo-moteur externe m. 

sixth cranial nerve M 
oculo-musculaire 

oculomuscular, referable to the muscles of the eye L 
oculo-musculaire externe m. 

sixth cranial nerve L 
oculo-musculaire interne m. 

patheticus nerve, fourth cranial nerve L 
oculo-palpebral, ale 

oculopalpebral, referable to the eye and eyelids M 

See also: conjonctivite oculo-palpebrale 
repli oculo-palpebral 
oculo-pupillaire 

oculopupillary, said of manifestations referable to the 

eye and to the pupil, in the complex results of the sec- 
tion or of the excitation of the cervical sympathetic L 
oedemateux See : nevrite oedemateuse 
oedeme palpebrale m. 

palpebral oedema, swelling of the eyelids M 
oedeme papillaire m. 

papilledema, papillary stasis, oedematous neuritis, 

choked disc, "Stauungspapille" ; an aspect — most often 

bilateral — in which the papillae are oedematous and 

the venous vessels of the retina are dilated as the result 

of an intracranial disturbance M 
oeil m. (Plural = yeux) 

eye M 

the word both in the singular and in the plural often 

signifies the action of looking, gaze A 

See also : a l'oeil nu 
a vue d'oeil 

140 



abaisseur de l'oeil 

abducteur de l'oeil 

accomodation de l'oeil 

adducteur de l'oeil 

ajustement de l'oeil aux distances 

annexes de l'oeil 

axe anatomique de l'oeil 

blanc de l'oeil 

bulbe de l'oeil 

centre optique de l'oeil 

chambres de l'oeil 

coin de Toeil 

coup d'oeil 

elevateur de l'oeil 

filament de l'oeil 

fond de l'oeil 

globe de l'oeil 

grand oblique de l'oeil 

membrane albuginee de l'oeil 

meridien de l'oeil 

nystagme de l'oeil 

oblique inferieur de l'oeil 

oblique superieur de l'oeil 

orbite de l'oeil 

petit oblique de l'oeil 

tunique albuginee de l'oeil 

oeil artificiel m. 

artificial eye, ocular prothesis M 

oeil atone m. 

an eye without vitality HDT 

oeil cataracte m. 

an eye afflicted with cataract HDT 

oeil colle m. 

agglutination of the eyelids M 

oeil de chat amaurotique m. 

cat's eye amaurosis ; glioma retinae ; fungus medullaris 
oculi; a soft malignant tumour analogous to that of 
glioma of the cerebrum, in which the pupil evinces a 
peculiar reflection of light M 

oeil de poupee m. 

doll's eye, global paralysis of the motor nerves of the 
eye, said when the eye is fixed and when not a single 
movement (abduction, adduction, raising, or lowering) 
is possible CHK 

141 



oeil de verre m. 

artificial glass or enamel eye HDT 

artificial eye of glass or of enamel, which one puts in 

place of a natural eye A 

oeil eraille m. 

ectropion; eye whose lower edge is everted HDT 

oeil nu m. 

naked eye HDT 

oeil poche in. 

an eye swollen and bruised as the result of a blow HDT 

oeil rose m. 

pinkeye, acute contagious conjunctivitis M 

oeil simple m. 

monoculus ; crossed bandage for keeping a local appli- 
cation upon one of the eyes, from 4 to 6 metres long L 

oeil sympathisant m. 

the eye primarily affected with sympathetic ophthal- 
mia M 

oeil sympathise m. 

the eye secondarily affected with sympathetic ophthal- 
mia M 

oeil vitreux m. 

glassy eye; eye whose brilliance is inert, like that of 
glass HDT 

oeil-de-lievre m. 

hare's eye, lagophthalmus, lagophthalmia ; malforma- 
tion of the upper eyelid which prevents it from cover- 
ing the eyeball, and which results from a paralysis of 
the orbicular muscle of the eyelids or from a retraction 
of the upper, eyelid which itself follows a wound, a 
burn, a tumour, or a swelling of the conjunctiva L 

oeillere f. 

eyecup L 

small cup for bathing the eyes HDT 

each of the two small pieces of leather attached to the 

headstall of a horse's bridle, to prevent the horse from 

looking to the side, to train him to look in front of him, 

and to protect his eyes from lashes with the whip ; also, 

a sort of small oval basin, mounted on one support, 

used for bathing the eyes A 

oeillet m. 

small eye (archaic) HDT 

offusquer 

to cover with darkness by intercepting the light HDT 

oie See : avoir la patte d'oie 
patte d'oie 

142 



ongle m. 

unguis; a nail-shaped film near the internal angle of 
the eye; crescent-shaped abscess between the iris and 
the cornea HDT 

onglee f. 

membranous excrescence in the eye of the horse HDT 

onglet m. 

sort of spine at the edge of the external eye of Diptera ; 
triangular fold of the conjunctiva of the eye in certain 
animals HDT 
synonym of pterygium L 

onyx m. 

name given to encanthis and to pterygium L 

opacite corneenne f. 
corneal opacity M 

opacite de la cornee f. 

corneal opacity (see taie) L 

opacite en bandelette f. 

ribbon-like opacity, girdle opacity; a special pathologic 
condition essentially characterised by a calcareous in- 
filtration of the surface layers of the cornea ; the layers 
are arranged with some regularity at the level of the 
palpebral aperture M 

opacite en ceinture f. 

Same as preceding entry 

opaque See : cornee opaque 

operation de la cataracte f. 

cataract extraction, removal of the crystalline lens 
HDT 

ophryon m. 

ophryon, the supraorbital point indicating the middle 
of the glabellum L 

ophryte phlegmoneuse f. 

phlegmonous ophrytis, inflammation of the region of 
the eyebrow ; the term has wrongly been given to in- 
flammation with partial or total suppuration of the eye- 
lids L 

ophtalmalgie f. 

ophthalmalgia, neuralgic pain in the eyes L 

ophtalmie f. 

ophthalmia, any inflammatory disease of the eyeball 
with redness of the conjunctiva; when it is limited to 
the conjunctiva it is called conjunctivitis y and the term 
of ophthalmia is reserved for complex inflammations 
simultaneously attacking several of the ocular tissues, 
but with constant inflammation of the conjunctiva L 

143 



ophtalmie a inclusions f. 

nongonorrhoeal conjunctivitis of the newborn; it ap- 
pears from the second to the tenth day after birth ; the 
epithelium of the conjunctival surface contains "inclu- 
sions" identical with the "inclusion" of initial tracho- 
ma M 

ophtalmie arthritique f. 
glaucoma L 

ophtalmie blennorragique f. 

gonorrhoeal ophthalmia M 

acute ophthalmia produced by the direct contact of the 

conjunctiva with pus from blennorrhagic discharge L 

ophtalmie ciliaire f. 

ciliary blepharitis L 

ophtalmie d'^gypte f. 

pustular ophthalmia, epidemic ophthalmia ; name given 
to granulations of the conjunctiva proper (trachoma) 
because this disease was first observed in troops re- 
turning from the Egyptian expedition L 

ophtalmie des neiges f. 

snow ophthalmia, conjunctival inflammation produced 
by the action of ultraviolet rays after a walk over snow 
without protective glasses; it occurs mainly in moun- 
tain regions M 

ophtalmie des nouveau-nes f. 

ophthalmia neonatorum, conjunctival infection that ap- 
pears during the first two weeks after birth M 

ophtalmie diphteritique f. 

diphtheritic ophthalmia, diphtheritic conjunctivitis; 
ophthalmia characterised by the presence of a pseudo- 
membrane at the surface of and right through the con- 
junctiva; it develops particularly in children from two 
to six years old L 

ophtalmie electrique f. 

electric ophthalmia, conjunctival inflammation pro- 
duced when the eye has been exposed to an electric arc 
light rich in ultraviolet rays or to a short circuit be- 
tween conductors of high voltage M 

ophtalmie humide f. 

humid ophthalmia, that in which there is a flow of 
tears A 

ophtalmie metastatique f. 

metastatic ophthalmia; endogenous infection of the 
ciliary region, which may be produced by the localisa- 
tion of pathogenetic agents of a general infection caused 
by the pneumococcus or the streptococcus M 

144 



ophtalmie post-variolique f. 

ophthalmia following smallpox, due to secondary in- 
fections M 

ophtalmie purulente f. 

purulent ophthalmia; the term includes gonorrhoeal 
ophthalmia, ophthalmia neonatorum, and, wrongly, 
pustular ophthalmia L 

ophtalmie purulente des nouveau-nes f. 
ophthalmia neonatorum L 

ophtalmie rhumatismale f. 

rheumatismal ophthalmia of Fournier, as opposed to 
contagious ophthalmia; gonorrhoeal conjunctivitis by 
metastasis ; its origin is endogenous, and it often ap- 
pears at the same time as diseases of the joints M 

ophtalmie scrofuleuse f. 

ciliary blepharitis, scrofulous ophthalmia L 

ophtalmie seche f. 

dry ophthalmia, without effusion HDT 
xerophthalmia, ophthalmia in which there is no flow of 
tears A 
ciliary blepharitis, sclerophthalmia L 

ophtalmie sympathique f. 

sympathetic ophthalmia; true sympathetic ophthalmia 
is a chronic infection affecting more particularly the 
uveal tract, penetrating most usually into the first eye 
on the occasion of a wound of the ciliary region, and 
being capable of attacking the uveal tract of the second 
eye by propagation that is probably vascular M 
ophthalmia produced in a healthy eye simply by a le- 
sion of the opposite eye; the lesion is nearly always 
traumatic in origin (foreign body, operations, et 
cetera) ; the eye that is originally healthy may suffer 
congestion, iridochoroiditis, bringing about the soften- 
ing of the organ by injury to nutrition ; most often only 
enucleation of this eye can check the progress of the 
ophthalmia, with which the opposite eyeball is affected 
sympathetically L 

ophtalmie variolique primitive f. 

primary ophthalmia referable to smallpox M 

ophtalmique 

ophthalmic, referable to the eye M 

which relates or belongs to the eyes ; which is peculiar 

to eye diseases A 

See also : artere ophtalmique 

ganglion ophtalmique 
migraine ophtalmique 
migraine ophtalmique accompagnee 

145 



nerf ophtalmique de Willis 
veine oph'talmique 
zona ophtalmique 

ophtalmite f. 

ophthalmitis, phlegmon of the eye; inflammation and 
suppuration of all the constituent parts of the eye, parti- 
cularly of the choroid and of the iris, whence the name 
of purulent iridochoroiditis which it is also given L 
See also : periophtalmite 

ophtalmoblenorrhee f. 

purulent ophthalmia, ophthalmoblennorrhea L 

ophtalmocele f. 

ophthalmocele, exophthalmia L 

ophtalmochroite f. 

melanin, black pigment of the eye, inter alia L 

ophtalmocopie f. 

ophthalmocopia, asthenopia, eyestrain; weakening of 
the sight, which is remarked almost exclusively in far- 
sighted persons and exceptionally in nearsighted per- 
sons who have abused the wearing of too strong con- 
cave glasses L 

ophtalmodynie f. 

ophthalmodynia, rheumatic pain in the eye; facial neu- 
ralgia in which the pain is propagated to the palpebral 
divisions of the ophthalmic nerve L 

ophtalmographie f. 

ophthalmography, anatomic description of the eye HDT 
description of the eye L 

part of anatomy which treats of the structure of the eye, 
and of the usage of the different parts of which it is 
composed A 

ophtalmoiatrie f. 

ophthalmo'iatry, ophthalmiatrics ; part of medicine 
which deals mainly with eye diseases L 

ophtalmolithe m. 

ophthalmolith, ocular or lachrymal concretion L 

ophtalmologie f. 

ophthalmology; that part of anatomy, of physiology, 
and of pathology which treats of the eyes and of their 
diseases L 

ophtalmomalacie f. 

ophthalmomalacia, ocular phthisis, hypotonia; atrophy 
of the eye, characterised by the softening and diminu- 
tion of the eyeball following the paralysis or the irrita- 
tion of the sympathetic, cervical, and trifacial nerves L 

146 



ophtalmomelanose f. 

ophthalmomelanosis, black colouration of the eyes ; me- 
lanic tumour of the eye or of its adnexa L 

ophtalmometre m. 

ophthalmometer; instrument invented by F. Petit for 
measuring the capacity of the posterior chamber of the 
eye ; instrument of Helmholtz, Javal, and others for the 
study of the refraction [corneal curvatures] of the 
eye L 

ophtalmometre de Javal m. 

Javal's ophthalmometer M 

ophtalmometre de Javal-Schioetz m. 

Javal-Schioetz's ophthalmometer M 

ophtalmometrie f. 

ophthalmometry, measurement of the refractive media 
of the eye and of their indices of refraction L 

ophtalmometrique 

ophthalmometric, referable to ophthalmometry or to 
the ophthalmometer M 

ophtalmo-microscope m. 

ophthalmomicroscope ; ophthalmoscope formed of a mi- 
croscope with a long focus arranged so as to permit 
examining the aerial and inverted image of the fundus 
oculi by transparency L 

ophtalmoplastie f. 

ophthalmoplasty, ocular prothesis L 

ophtalmoplegie f. 

ophthalmoplegia, the paralysis of several branches or of 
all the branches of the oculomotor nerve (as distin- 
guished from oculomotor paralysis, the paralysis of 
one nerve trunk alone, whatever be the seat of the 
causal lesion) M 
paralysis of the muscles of the eye L 

ophtalmoplegie double f. 

double ophthalmoplegia, which occurs when both the 
internal and the external muscles are paralysed at the 
same time L 

ophtalmoplegie externe f. 

ophthalmoplegia externa, paralysis of the rectus and 
obliquus muscles M 

ophthalmoplegia is called external when the motor mus- 
cles of the eyeball are affected L 

ophtalmoplegie hysterique f. 

ophthalmoplegia referable to hysteria M 

ophtalmoplegie interne f. 

ophthalmoplegia interna, paralysis of the interior mus- 
culature (iris and ciliary muscle) M 

147 



ophthalmoplegia is called internal when it affects the 
internal musculature of the eye, the sphincter of the 
pupil, and the ciliary muscle L 

ophtalmoplegie nucleaire f. 

nuclear ophthalmoplegia, a form of ophthalmoplegia ex- 
terna ; a patient so afflicted has Hutchinson's facies M 
paralysis of the muscles of the eye due to lesions of the 
nuclei of the motor muscles of the eye L 

ophtalmoplegie totale f. 

ophthalmoplegia totalis, paralysis of the exterior and 
interior musculatures of the eyeball M 

ophtalmoplegique 

ophthalmoplegic, referable to ophthalmoplegia M 
which is accompanied by ophthalmoplegia L 
See also : migraine ophtalmoplegique 

ophtalmoponie f. 

ophthalmoponia, pain in the eye L 

ophtalmoptose f. 

ophthalmoptosis, synonym of exophthalmia L 

ophtalmopyorrhee f. 

purulent ophthalmia, ophthalmopyorrhoea L 

ophtalmorragie f. 

ophthalmorrhagia, flow of blood to the outside through 
the bulbar conjunctiva or into the eye through the 
choroid L 

ophtalmoscope m. 

ophthalmoscope, instrument which serves to examine 
the interior of the eye A 

instrument invented by Helmholtz for examining the 
interior of the eye ; a great many ophthalmoscopes have 
been designed ; the most widely used ones are those of 
Coccius, Desmarres, Galezowski, Panas, and Haab L 
See also : autoophtalmoscope 

ophtalmoscope binoculaire m. 

binocular ophthalmoscope, in which a special mechan- 
ism separates the rays which form the real image of 
the eye observed between the two eyes of the observer, 
as in the stereoscope, by means of small prisms placed 
in front of the instrument L 

ophtalmoscopie f. 

ophthalmoscopy, the examination of the interior of the 
eye with the ophthalmoscope M 

formerly, the art of telling the temperament of a person 
by the examination of his eyes; today, the use of the 
ophthalmoscope L 

148 



ophtalmoscopie binoculaire f. 

binocular ophthalmoscopy; Giraud-Teulon's modifica- 
tion in ophthalmoscopy, making it possible to use both 
eyes for the examination of the interior of the eye of 
the subject observed L 

ophtalmoscopique 

ophthalmoscopic, referable to the ophthalmoscope, dis- 
cernible with the ophthalmoscope M 

ophtalmostat m. 

ophthalmostat, blepharostat, speculum oculi; instru- 
ment by means of which one keeps the eyelids apart 
and the eyeball immobile when one has to operate on 
it and sometimes when one has to examine the con- 
junctiva or the cornea L 

ophtalmostatometrie f. 

ophthalmostatometry, determination of the location of 
the eyes ; it is effected by establishing the distance that 
separates the pole of the cornea from certain orbital 
points M 

ophtalmotomie f. 

ophthalmotomy ; in anatomy, dissection of the eye ; in 
surgery, 1 — puncture of the eye, and 2 — extirpation 
of the eye or enucleation L 

ophtalmotonometre m. 

ophthalmotonometer, instrument designed to show the 
degree of intraocular tension L 

ophtalmotrope m. 

myometer, instrument designed by Ruete for measuring 
the contraction of the muscles of the eye, in cases of 
strabismus L 

ophtalmoxyse f. 

ophthalmoxysis, scarification of the conjunctiva in 
cases of chemosis L 

ophtalmoxystre m. 

ophthalmoxyster ; instrument with which Woolhouse 
scarified the conjunctiva or the internal surface of the 
eyelids ; it was a little brush made with barbs of ears of 
barley or of rye L 

ophtalmozoaire a. and s. 

name common to Cysticerci, Monostomata, Distomata, 
and Filariae that have developed in the eye ; sometimes 
they are located in the subconjunctival cellular tissue, 
sometimes inside of the eye L 

ophthalmie (HDT) See : ophtalmie 

ophthalmique (HDT) See : ophtalmique 

ophthalmographie (HDT) See : ophtalmographie 

ophthalmoscope (HDT) See: ophtalmoscope 

149 



opotypes m. 

test types used in testing vision M 
opsiometre m. 

opsiometer, instrument serving to measure the distance 
of distinct vision L 
opsionose f. 

opsionosis; disease of the eye, of vision in general L 
opticien m. 

optician ; one skilled in the science of optics (archaic) ; 
one who manufacturers or sells optic instruments HDT 
he who knows, who teaches optics, who is versed in 
optics; more ordinarily it signifies one who manufac- 
tures, who sells optic instruments A 
optico See : sous-optico-spheno-scleroticien 

sus-optico-pheni-scleroticien 
optico-ciliaire 

opticociliary M 
optico-trochlei-scleroticien 

a. referable to the superior oblique muscle of the eye 
s. superior oblique muscle of the eye, obliquus su- 
perior muscle; this muscle turns the eyeball up- 
ward and outward L 
optique 

f. optics; science of the phenomena of light and of 
vision; vision of objects in a certain perspective 
HDT 

part of physics which treats of light and of the laws 
of vision ; also, perspective, aspect of objects seen 
from afar A 

that part of physics which treats of light phenome- 
na, especially of those referable to its propagation 
in a direct line, dioptrics and catoptrics treating of 
the phenomena of refracted or reflected light L 
a. optic, referable to sight M 

relative to the phenomena of light and of vision 

HDT 

which serves for or relates to vision A 

See also: angle optique 

aphasie optique 

atrophie de la papille optique 

atrophie du nerf optique 

atrophie optique 

axe du nerf optique 

axe optique 

bandelette des nerfs optiques 

bandelette optique 

canal optique 

150 



centre optique 
centre optique de l'oeil 
excavation atrophique du nerf optique 
fibres optiques 
illusion d'optique 
iridectomie optique 
lunette panoptique 
nerf optique 
nerfs optiques 
nevrite optique 
nevrite optique oxycephalique 
panoptique 
papille optique 
strabisme optique 
trou optique 
optographe m. 

optogram, photographic retinal image produced by the 
destruction of the rhodopsin L 
optometre m. 

optometer, apparatus for measuring the range of vi- 
sion L 

See also: chromoptometre 
optometrie f. 

optometry, the use of the optometer; dioptrics con- 
sidered in relation to the eye ; study of the refraction of 
the light rays by the refringent media of the eye- 
ball L 
ora serrata f. 

ora serrata retinae M 

jagged circular line of demarcation between the ciliary 
zone and the choroid zone of the choroid L 
orbe 

blind (archaic) HDT 
orbiculaire 

m. orbicularis palpebrarum muscle; sphincter oculi 
a. orbicular M 

See also: contraction orbiculaire 
muscle orbiculaire 
reflexe orbiculaire de la pupille 
spasme orbiculaire 
orbiculaire des paupieres m. 

orbicularis palpebrarum muscle; muscle forming a flat 
and rather thin layer below the skin of the eyelids and 
at the level of the edges of the eyesocket L 
orbitaire 

orbital, referable to the eyesocket M 
See also : arcade orbitaire 

151 



artere orbitaire 

bord orbitaire 

bord orbitaire superieur 

canal sous-orbitaire 

cavite orbitaire 

fosse orbitaire 

glande lacrymale orbitaire 

glande orbitaire 

glandes lacrymales orbitaires 

intra-orbitaire 

nerf orbitaire 

osteoperiostite orbitaire aigue 

palpebro-orbitaire 

paroi orbitaire inferieure 

phlegmon orbitaire 

sous-orbitaire 

thrombophlebite orbitaire 

varicocele orbitaire 

orbite f. 

orbit, eyesocket, bony cavity in which the eye is plac- 
ed HDT 

orbital cavity, socket; cavity designed to contain the 

organ of sight, situated at the upper part of the face, 

and composed of seven bones L 

See also : aponevrose de Torbite 
orbite de Toeil f. 

eyesocket, the cavity in which the eye is placed A 
orbitocele f. 

orbitocele, tumour of the eyesocket; exophthalmia L 
orbito-extus-scleroticien 

a. referable to the external rectus muscle of the eye 

m. external rectus muscle of the eye L 
orbito-intus-scleroticien 

a. referable to the internal rectus muscle of the eye 

m. internal rectus muscle of the eye L 
orbito-oculaire 

orbitoocular, referable to the eyesocket and to the eye L 

See also : aponevrose orbito-oculaire 
orbito-palpebral 

a. orbitopalpebral M 

m. orbitopalpebral muscle, levator palpebrae superioris 
muscle L 
orbitotomie f. 

orbitotomy M 
orgelet m. 

stye, hordeolum; small tumour having the nature of a 

X52 



furuncle which grows close to the free edge of the eye- 
lids HDT 

disease of the eyelids which consists in a small tumour 
the size and form of a grain of barley A 
small inflammatory pimple having the nature of a fu- 
runcle, which develops close to the free edge of the 
eyelids, particularly toward the internal angle of the 
eye, especially in young individuals and as the result 
of a certain predisposition ; its oblong form and its 
size have caused it to be compared with a grain of 
barley L 

orgeolet m. 

stye, a suppurative acute inflammation of the free edge 
located in the glands of Zeiss or the Meibomian glands ; 
hordeolum M 

orgeolet ciliaire m. 

hordeolum externum, acne ciliaris, where the initial site 
of the inflammation is the glands of Zeiss M 

orgeolet externe m. 

Same as preceding entry 

orgeolet interne m. 

hordeolum internum, Meibomian acne, where the in- 
flammation is localised to the Meibomian glands M 

orgeolet meibomien m. 

Same as preceding entry 

orifice pupillaire m. 

pupillary orifice M 

orthophorie f. 

orthophoria M 

orthoscope m. 

orthoscope, apparatus serving to examine the eye 
through a liquid layer ; it is composed of a little bottom- 
less case whose edges are applied to the contour of the 
eyesocket and which one fills with water; it permits 
seeing exactly the condition of the anterior chamber 
and the position of the iris with respect to* the cornea 
and to the crystalline lens (Czermak) L 

os lacrymal m. 

lachrymal bone, os unguis L 

oscillations nystagmiformes f. 

nystagmiform oscillations, Uhthoffs term for a type 
of nystagmus which appears solely when one asks the 
patient to look to one side M 

oscillatoire See : nystagmus oscillatoire 

ossifie See : cataracte ossifiee 

osteoperiostite orbitaire aigue f. 

acute orbital osteoperiostitis M 

153 



ouverture palpebrale f. 

palpebral aperture, fissure, slit ; orbital fissure, the slit 

or opening between the eyelids M 
oxycephalique See: nevrite optique oxycephalique 
oxyopie f. 

oxyopia, vision more piercing than it ordinarily is L 



pacheablepharose incorrect form of pachyblepharose (q. 

v.) (L) 
pachyblepharose f. 

pachyblepharosis, pachyblepharon ; thickening of the 
tissue of the eyelids caused by chronic inflammation or 
by the development of tubercles, of excrescences upon 
their free edge L 
paire See : quatrieme paire 
troisieme paire 
paire de lunettes f. 

a pair of spectacles, a pair of glasses HDT 
palpebral, ale 

palpebral, referable to the eyelids M 
See also: caronculo-palpebral 

clignement palpebral 

colobome palpebral 

conjonctive palpebrale 

conjonctivite oculo-palpebrale 

con j oncti vo-palpebral 

ecchymose palpebrale 

epithelioma palpebral 

fente palpebrale 

follicules palpebraux 

glande lacrymale palpebrale 

granulations palpebrales 

necrose palpebrale 

occlusion palpebrale 

oculo-palpebral 

oedeme palpebral 

orbito-palpebral 

ouverture palpebrale 

region palpebrale 

releveur palpebral 

repli oculo-palpebral 

sillon caronculo-palpebral 

voussure palpebrale 
palpebro-conjonctival, ale 

palpebroconjunctival M 

154 



palpebro-frontal, ale 

palpebrofrontal, referable to the eyelid and to the fore- 
head L 
See also: nerf palpebro-frontal 

palpebro-orbitaire 

palpebroorbital M 

panneux, euse 

referable to pannus M 
See also : keratite panneuse 

pannus m. 

pannus; disease of the cornea characterised by a net- 
work of small newly formed vessels adhering to this 
organ and covering it partly or entirely in the form of 
a membranous veil L 

pannus granuleux m. 
granular pannus M 

pannus trachomateux m. 

trachomatous pannus, keratitis referable to pannus M 

panophtalme 

panophthalmic, afflicted with panophthalmia M 

panophtalmie f. 

panophthalmia, ophthalmitis L 

panoptique See : lunette panoptique 

papillaire 

papillary, referable to the optic papilla M 
See also : cercle peripapillaire 
excavation papillaire 
oedeme papillaire 
peripapillaire 
stase papillaire 

papille f. 

optic papilla, optic disc, papilla nervi optici; papilla of 
the optic nerve, a whitish round disc; intraocular end 
of the optic nerve L 
See also: atrophie de la papille optique 
excavation de la papille 

papille de stase f. 

papillary stasis, oedematous neuritis, choked disc, pa- 
pilledema, "Stauungspapille" ; an aspect — most often 
bilateral — in which the papillae are oedematous and the 
venous vessels of the retina are dilated as the result of 
an intracranial disturbance [such as pressure] M 

papille etranglee f. 

Same as preceding entry 

papille optique f. 

optic papilla, optic disc, papilla nervi optici; papilla of 

155 



the optic nerve, a whitish round disc; intraocular end 

of the optic nerve L 

See also : atrophie de la papille optique 

papilles vasculaires f. 

vascular papillae; large and irregular papillae at the 
tarsus of the palpebral conjunctiva L 

papillite f. 

papillitis, optic neuritis, lesions of the anterior segment 
of the optic nerve M 

inflammation of the ocular extremity of the optic 
nerve L 

papillo-retinite f. 

papilloretinitis M 

papillotage m. 

glitter, glare; effect of that which hurts the eyes, by 
the reflection of lights or colours that are too bright 
HDT 

papillote See : avoir les yeux en papillotes 

papilloter 

to twinkle, to dazzle (said of lights and colours with 
reference to the eyes) ; to blink or wink because of 
glare (said of the eyes) HDT 

papuleux See: conjonctivite papuleuse 

par See : conjonctivite aigue causee par le bacille de Pfeiffer 

parablepsie f. 

parablepsia, spasmodic deviation of the gaze to one side, 
lateral oculogyric spasm [one of the complications and 
sequelae of epidemic encephalitis] TB 

paracentese de la cornee f. 

paracentesis of the cornea; puncture practised in cases 
of abscess of the cornea, hydrophthalmia, hypopyon, 
and empyesis ; it is done with a cataract needle sent 
into the anterior chamber by attacking the cornea near 
its circumference L 

paralampsie f. 

paralampsia, a variety of albugo, called also pearl L 

paralysie accornodative f . 

paralysis of accomodation, total or partial suppression 
of the amplitude of accomodation; it is differentiated 
from other disturbances in accomodation by its abrupt 
appearance M 

paralysie irienne f. 

paralysis of the iris, iridoplegia M 

paralysie oculo-motrice f. 

oculomotor paralysis, said when one nerve trunk alone 
is paralysed, whatever be the seat of the causal lesion 
(as distinguished from ophthalmoplegia, the paralysis 

156 



of several branches or of all the branches of the oculo- 
motor nerve) M 
paralysie oculo-motrice periodique recidivante f. 

ophthalmoplegic migraine, recurrent periodic oculo- 
motor paralysis; syndrome characterised by attacks of 
migraine during several days, and followed by paralysis 
of the third pair of cranial nerves (ptosis, external stra- 
bismus, diplopia, paralysis of the accomodation, pupil- 
lary dilatation) ; this paralysis, temporary at first, per- 
sists in proportion as the attacks are repeated, and may 
even become complete and permanent L 
paralytique See : ectropion paralytique 

keratite neuroparalytique 
lagophtalmos paralytique 
ptosis paralytique 

ptosis pseudo-paralytique hysterique 
strabisme paralytique 
parapluie See : retine "en parapluie" 
parasitaire See : blepharite parasitaire 
parcours de Taccomodation m. 

range of accomodation, the linear distance which sepa- 
rates the punctum remotum from the punctum proxi- 
mum M 
parenchymateux See : keratite parenchymateuse 

xerosis parenchymateux 
paresie accomodative f. 

paralysis of accomodation, total or partial suppression 
of the amplitude of accomodation ; it is differentiated 
from other disturbances in accomodation by its abrupt 
appearance M 
paresse pupillaire f. 

diminution in the light reflex of the pupil M 
Parinaud See : conjonctivite de Parinaud 
paroi orbitaire inferieure f. 

lower wall of the orbit M 
parophtalmie f. 

parophthalmia, periocular or palpebral ophthalmia L 
paropie f. 

external angle of the eyelids L 
paropsie f. 

paropsis ; general name for disorders of vision, such as 
myopia, hemeralopia, et cetera L 
paroxystique See : deviation paroxystique des globes 
keratite traumatique paroxystique 
spasme tonique paroxystique des supero- 
gyres 

157 



partiel See : amaurose partielle 

dyschromatopsie partielle 
pathetique 

m. patheticus, fourth cranial nerve 
a. referable to the patheticus muscle or nerve M 
See also : muscle pathetique 
nerf pathetique 
patte d'oie f. 

crow's feet, intercrossing of wrinkles which start from 
the corner of the eye HDT 
paupiere f. 

eyelid ; the mobile skin which serves to cover the eye- 
ball, when it is lowered, and which is bordered by small 
hairs called cilia; the word also signifies only the hair 
of the eyelid, the eyelashes A 
See also : abaisse-paupiere 

abaisseur de la paupiere 
bord des paupieres 
chute de la paupiere 
commissure des paupieres 
elevateur de la paupiere superieure 
eraillement de la paupiere 
occlusion des paupieres 
orbiculaire des paupieres 
reclinaison des paupieres 
releveur de la paupiere superieure 
troisieme paupiere 
paupiere inferieure f. 

lower eyelid L 
paupiere superieure f. 
upper eyelid L 

See also : elevateur de la paupiere superieure 
releveur de la paupiere superieure 
pectine See : ligament pectine 
pediculaire See: blepharite pediculaire 
pellucide See : conicite pellucide de la cornee 

staphylome pellucide 
pemphigus oculaire m. 

pemphigus of the eye, an ocular manifestation of true 
chronic pemphigus M 
perdu See : yeux perdus 
pericorneal, ale 

pericorneal, perikeratic, which is around the cornea L 
pericystite lacrymale f. 

lachrymal pericystitis, streptococcic infection that has 
developed about the lachrymal sac M 

158 



pericystite lacrymale a streptocoques f. 

lachrymal pericystitis caused by streptococci, propa- 
gated through the lymph (perilachrymal phlegmon or 
streptococcic pericystitis of Parinaud) M 

peridacryocystite f. 

peridacryocystitis M 

perikeratique 

perikeratic, pericorneal, which is around the cornea L 

perimetre m. 

perimeter, an instrument for measuring the field of 
vision M 

perioculaire 

periocular M 

periodique See : paralysie oculo-motrice periodique recidi- 
vante 

strabisme divergent periodique 
strabisme periodique 

periophtalmite f. 

periophthalmitis, inflammation of Tenon's capsule, 
tenonitis, capsulitis L 

peripapillaire 

peripapillary, around the papilla M 
See also : cercle peripapillaire 

peripherique See : scotome peripherique 
vision peripherique 

perisclerite f. 

periscleritis, episcleritis ; inflammation of the sclerotic, 
or, more exactly, of the episcleral cellular tissue; it is 
a rare disease, hardly found except in rheumatic pa- 
tients ; it is also called scleritis L 

periscopique 

which permits one to see all around HDT 
See also : verre periscopique 

verres periscopiques 

perle f. 

a variety of albugo, called also paralampsis L 

Petit See : canal de Petit 

syndrome de Pourfour du Petit 

petit angle m. 

external angle of the eye L 

petit canthus m. 

external commissure, commissura palpebrarum latera- 
lis L 

petit oblique m. 

obliquus inferior, one of the levator muscles of the 
eye M 

159 



petit oblique de Toeil m. 

obliquus inferior muscle, inferior oblique muscle of the 
eye ; this muscle turns the eyeball upward and outward 
[inward] L 

Pfeiffer See: conjonctivite aigue causee par le bacille de 
Pfeiffer 

phacitis f. 

phacitis, phakitis ; supposed inflammation of the crys- 
talline lens, which does not exist L 

phacohydropsie f. 

phacohydropsy, supposed dropsy of the crystalline 
lens L 

phacohymenitis f. 

phacohymenitis, inflammation of the capsule of the 
crystalline lens L 

phacoide See : corps phacoide 

phacomalacie f. 

phacomalacia, softening of the crystalline lens L 

phacometre m. 

phacometer; instrument making it possible to tell the 
dioptric power of lenses that form the lenses of ordinary 
spectacles simply by reading (phacometers of Badal 
and of Snellen) L 

phaconine f. 

phaconin, name given by Fremy to the albuminoid sub- 
stance that predominates in the jagged fibres of the 
crystalline lens L 

phacopyosis f. 

phacopyosis ; supposed suppuration of the crystalline 
lens ; it is soft cataract taken for it L 

phacosclerose f. 

phacosclerosis, hardening of the crystalline lens L 

phalangose f. 

phalangosis ; eye disease which, according to Paul of 
Aegina, differs from trichiasis in that, in the latter, 
there are accidental and supernumerary eyelashes, 
whereas in phalangosis there is simply deviation of the 
natural eyelashes ; relaxation of the upper eyelid as the 
result of the paralysis of the levator muscle of this 
part L 

phalangosis f. 

phalangosis, trichiasis in which one or several more or 
less complete supernumerary rows of eyelashes exist L 

pheni See : sus-optico-pheni-scleroticien 

phlegmon orbitaire m. 

phlegmon of the eyesocket M 

phlegmoneux See : ophryte phlegmoneuse 

160 



phlyctenulaire See : conjonctivite phlyctenulaire 
keratite phlyctenulaire 

phlyctenule f. 

phlyctenule, phlyctenula ; small vesicle of the cornea in 
certain keratites L 

phosphatique See : cataracte phosphatique 

phosphene m. 

phosphene, a phenomenon of light which may be pro- 
voked on the retina by pressing the eyeball HDT 
name given by Savigny (1838) to the light images that 
are produced when one methodically compresses the 
eyeball with the finger, and, consequently, the retina L 

photisme m. 

photism, visual sensation connected with auditory phe- 
nomena, in chromatic audition L 

photomoteur See : ref lexe photomoteur 

photophobie f. 

photophobia M 

fear of light, aversion from light A 

extreme sensitiveness of the eye to light L 

photopsie f. 

photopsia, eye disorder in which one believes that he 
sees flashes of light ; it is a symptom common to several 
diseases of the eyeball L 

phtisie pupillaire f. 

myosis ; permanent stricture of the pupil, with more or 
less marked immobility, the opposite of mydriasis; it 
is found in inflammation of the iris L 

physiologique See : astigmatisme physiologique 

pierre divine f. 

it is composed of copper sulphate, potassium nitrate, 
and aluminium sulphate, aa 20 parts, melted in a cru- 
cible; 1 part of camphor is added to the molten mass; 
when dissolved in water, it is used as a collyrium under 
the name of Helvetius's collyrium, or it serves to touch 
granulations of the conjunctiva directly L 

pierreux See : cataracte pierreuse 

pigment iridien m. 

pigment of the iris L 

pigmentaire See : naevi pigmentaires 
retinite pigmentaire 

pigmentation retinienne f. 

retinal pigmentation ; occasional hypergenesis of the 
superficial pigmented layer of the choroid, which en- 
croaches upon the retina, rarefies it, and ends by per- 
forating it sometimes ; these small irregular or stellate 
masses give a speckled aspect to the retina [usually in 

161 



the equatorial region] seen with the ophthalmoscope, 
whence the inexact names of tigroid retinitis or pigmented 
retinitis; sometimes disturbances in vision result from 
it L 

pince a capsule f. 

capsule forceps M 

pince a cataracte f. 

cataract forceps ; very small dissection forceps whose 
very slender extremities have rounded jaws and meet 
with the greatest precision L 

pince a chalazion f. 

chalazion forceps M 

pince a epilation f. 

epilation tweezers M 

pince a iris f. 

iris forceps M 

pince capsulaire f. 

capsule forceps M 

pince de Desmarres f. 

Desmarres's forceps, employed for the extraction of 
cysts and other tumours of the eyelids; this type pre- 
vents haemorrhage by the compression that it exerts, 
it renders the tumour immobile in spite of the patient's 
movements, and makes it possible to operate on the 
eyelid without perforating it L 

pince fenetree a chalazion f. 

fenestrated forceps for the removal of a chalazion M 

pincement de l'iris m. 

incarceration of the iris ; whenever a penetrating wound 
of the cornea or of the region of the limbus occupies 
2 millimetres and over, the iris enters the lips of the 
wound ; incarceration of the iris occurs when the iridic 
tissue does not pass beyond the cornea M 

pince-nez m. 

nose glasses M 

Pinguecula f. 

pinguicula ; a benign lesion of the bulbar conjunctiva, 
located near the limbus, slightly below the horizontal 
diameter of the cornea and forming a slightly elevated 
spot yellowish white in colour; this affection appears 
particularly after the age of forty M 

pinguicula (not Pinguecula) f. 

pinguicula; small tumour of the conjunctiva, so called 
because it was believed to be formed of fat; it is ordi- 
narily located near the internal angle of the eye; it is 
rarely larger than a hemp seed ; it is rather hard, round, 
and shiny at the surface, yellowish in colour — which 

162 



fact gave rise to a belief that its nature was fatty; 

Desmarres and Robin have shown that it is exclusively 

composed of hypertrophied conjunctival pavement epi- 
thelium L 
pladarose f. 

pladarosis ; formerly a small soft wen (sebaceous cyst, 

wart), without redness or pain, which develops upon 

the eyelids L 
plafond See : regard au plafond 

yeux au plafond 
plafonnement m. 

anablepsia, abrupt upward deviation of the eyes [one 

of the complications and sequelae of epidemic ence- 
phalitis] B 
plafonner 

to suffer an attack of anablepsia RR2 
plan focal m. 

plane perpendicular to the principal axis, passing 

through the principal focus, and in which are all the 

secondary foci of the parallel rays L 
plancher oculaire m. 

the zone between the pupil and the lower edge of the 

choroid M 

See also : colobome du plancher oculaire 
plans focaux m. 

focal planes HDT 
platreux See : cataracte platreuse 
pleurant, ante 

weeping, crying HDT 
pleurer 

to cry, to weep, to shed tears HDT 
pleureux, euse 

ready to cry HDT 
plexus ciliaire m. 

ciliary plexus M 
plexus de Schlemm m. 

Schlemm's ciliary canal L 
pli semilunaire m. 

plica semilunaris conjunctivae, semilunar fold M 
pneumocoque See: conjonctivite a pneumocoques 

conjonctivite lacrymale a pneumocoques 
des nouveau-nes 
keratite a pneumocoques 
poche See : oeil poche 
point See : eversion des points lacrymaux 
point lacrymal m. 

lachrymal point M 

163 



point lacrymal inferieur m. 

lower lachrymal point M 

point lacrymal superieur m. 
upper lachrymal point M 

pointille See : cataracte pointillee 

points lacrymaux m. 

lachrymal points, puncta lacrimalia, the outlets of the 

lachrymal canaliculi M 

two holes following the eyelid to which they belong 

(upper or lower), which occupy the centre of a rounded 

tubercle, and which are the constantly open orifices of 

the tear ducts L 

See also : eversion des points lacrymaux 

polaire See: cataracte polaire 

cataracte polaire anterieure 
cataracte polaire posterieure 

poliose ciliaire f. 

ciliary poliosis, rapid depigmentation of the cilia; it is 
seen in exophthalmic goitre M 

polycorie f. 

polycoria, the presence of several pupillary orifices 
caused by an anomaly or a lesion of the iris L 

polyopic f. 

polyopia, polyopsia; defect of vision which makes one 
see each object as if it were multiplied; it is called 
monocular or binocular depending on whether it affects 
a single eye or both eyes L 

polyopsie f. 

Same as preceding entry 

ponction de la sclerotique f. 

puncture of the sclerotic; it is practised in order to di- 
minish intraocular tension, or in case of subretinal effu- 
sions L 

ponctue See : keratite ponctuee 
retinite ponctuee 

port des verres m. 

the wearing of glasses M 

posterieur See : arteres ciliaires posterieures 
cataracte polaire posterieure 
cristalloide posterieure 
lenticone posterieur 
membrane posterieure 
sclero-choro'idite posterieure 
segment posterieur 
staphylome posterieur 
synechie posterieure 

164 



post-variolique See : ophtalmie post-variolique 

poupee See : oeil de poupee 
yeux de poupee 

Pourfour du Petit See : syndrome de Pourfour du Petit 

pourpre retinien m. 

rhodopsin ; red pigment which accumulates in the retina 
during obscurity, and which loses its colour in daylight ; 
it is found in the internal [external] segment of the 
rods ; its role is unknown L 

pouvoir refringent m. 

refraction (of eye) M 

prepapillaire 

prepapillary M 

See also : anse arterielle prepapillaire 

presbyopic f. 

presbyopia, presbytia, farsightedness; state of those 
persons whose vision is blurred when they look at near 
objects and distinct when they view fairly remote ob- 
jects; this condition results from senile weakening of 
the ciliary muscle L 

presbyte m. and f. 

a person affected with presbyopia M 
one who can see only objects at a distance because the 
ciliary muscle no longer gives the crystalline lens the 
necessary curvature HDT 
See also : lunettes de presbyte 
myo-presbyte 

presbytie f. 

presbytia, presbyopia, farsightedness; state of those 
persons whose vision is blurred when they look at near 
objects and distinct when they view fairly remote ob- 
jects; this condition results from senile weakening of 
the ciliary muscle L 

presbytique 

presbytie, presbyopic, which belongs to farsighted- 
ness L 

primitif See : glaucome primitif inflammatoire 
ophtalmie variolique primitive 
sporotrichose primitive de la conjonctive 

printanier See : conjonctivite printaniere 

prive de la lumiere 
blind HDT 

prive de la vue 

blind, afflicted with loss of sight HDT 

proces ciliaires m. 

processus ciliares, ciliary processes; seventy to eighty 
prolongations — in the form of folds — of the choroid, 

165 



about 0.01 m. in length, situated opposite the internal 
surface of the ciliary muscle, and by their meeting 
forming the ciliary body or crown L 

prodromique See : glaucome prodromique 

prolapsus irien m. 

prolapse of the iris; hernia of the iris M 

proliferant See : retinite proliferante 

proptosis f. 

ocular proptosis ; congenital ptosis, the most frequent 
congenital affection of the eyelids; this ptosis is al- 
ways incomplete M 

prorrhaphie f. 

strabotomy L 

protanope f. 

a person whose perception of red is very weak, a person 
with anerythropsia M 

prothese oculaire f. 

ocular prothesis, artificial eye M 

proximum See : punctum proximum 

prunelle f. 

pupil of the eye HDT 

name commonly given to the pupil L 

the opening which appears black in the middle of the 

eye, and through which the rays pass to depict objects 

upon the retina A 

pseudo See: ptosis pseudo-paralytique hysterique 

pseudoblepsie f. 

pseudoblepsis, perversion of the sense of sight L 

pseudochromesthesie f. 

pseudochromaesthesia ; anomaly of the perception of 
visual impressions in which each vowel appears 
coloured differently; the combination of vowels gives 
the words an individual colour depending on the group- 
ings of vowels which compose them; sometimes they 
are perceived with their black colour, but at once this 
perception calls up the idea of a colour (for example, 
red for a, pink for e, white for i, et cetera) ; the recol- 
lection or the hearing of vowels or words evokes the 
idea of this colour in certain persons independently of 
any visual sensation caused by their objective repre- 
sentation L 

pseudochromie f. 

dyschromatopsia L 

pseudo-conjonctivite du nouveau-ne f. 

pseudoconjunctivitis of the newborn ; its origin is not 
microbian but rather mechanical, since it starts in an 
atresia of the canalis nasolacrimal when spontaneous 

166 



HHi 



perforation of the thin partition between the lower end 
of the nasolachrymal duct and the nasal cavity does 
not take place in the foetus W 

pseudo-diascope m. 

pseudodiascope; instrument so constructed that one 
eye receives the light ray transmitted through a small 
opening, while the other eye looks at an opaque object; 
the sensation is then transposed, one involuntarily 
places the point of light upon the axis of the eye which 
looks at the opaque substance, and for which this sub- 
stance seems to be pierced with a hole through which 
light is seen (Ward) L 

pseudo-paralytique See: ptosis pseudo-paralytique hyste- 
rique 

pseudo-ptosis m. 

pseudoptosis due to disturbances independent of the 
levator palpebrae superioris muscle M 

psorophtalmie f. 

psorophthalmia, name given to several varieties of ble- 
pharitis L 

psychique See : cecite psychique 

pterygion m. 

pterygium, a disease of the conjunctiva and of the cor- 
nea characterised by the presence of an opaque, vascu- 
lar, triangular membrane whose apex encroaches upon 
the cornea and advances toward the centre of the cor- 
nea M 

thickening or partial hypertrophy of the subconjunc- 
tival tissue of the bulbar conjunctiva; it apppears in 
the form of a triangle, whose apex faces the cornea, 
upon which it finally encroaches, which fact constitutes 
its danger; its base is turned toward the caruncle L 

pterygoide de la conjonctive m. 

pterygoid of the conjunctiva; it bears a certain re- 
semblance to pterygium and is characterised by the 
grafting of folds of the conjunctiva upon the cornea 
following a traumatism L 

ptilose f. 

ptilosis, falling out of the eyelashes L 

ptose f. (L) See: ptosis. 

ptosis m. 

ptosis, falling of the eyelid; synonym of blepharopto- 

sis L 

See also : pseudo-ptosis 

ptosis congenital m. 

congenital ptosis, the most frequent congenital affec- 

167 



tion of the eyelids; this ptosis is always incomplete; 
ocular proptosis M 

ptosis isole m. 

isolated ptosis, characterised by the absence of any 
other oculomotor disturbance M 

ptosis paralytique m. 

paralytic ptosis, the fall of the upper eyelid or the low- 
ering of its free edge resulting from an acquired para- 
lysis of the levator palpebrae superioris muscle M 

ptosis pseudo-paralytique hysterique m. 

pseudoparalytic ptosis due to hysteria, which consists 
in a moderate lowering of the upper eyelid with lower- 
ing of the eyebrow of the same side M 

ptosis sympathique m. 

sympathetic ptosis, a slight ptosis which is part of 
Horner's syndrome M 

pulsatile See : exophtalmie pulsatile 

pulvinar m. 

pulvinar, the posterior end of the thalamus L 

punctiforme See : keratite punctiforme 

punctum caecum m. 

punctum caecum, blind spot in the visual field; lacuna 
in the field of vision, which was discovered by Mariotte, 
and which corresponds with the very papilla of the 
optic nerve; it is very small, like that papilla, and es- 
capes notice if one departs from the particular condi- 
tions of Mariotte's experiment L 

punctum proximum m. 

punctum proximum, near point; the nearest point of 
distinct monocular vision M 

the closest point of distinct vision (15 centimetres) 
without the intervention of accomodation L 

punctum remotissimum m. 

punctum remotum, the most distant point of distinct 
vision (about 65 metres) without the intervention of 
accomodation L 

punctum remotum m. 

punctum remotum, far point; the farthest point seen 
distinctly by the eye M 

the most distant point of distinct vision (about 65 me- 
tres) without the intervention of accomodation L 

pupillaire 

pupillary, referable to the pupil of the eye M 
See also : bradycinesie pupillaire 
capsulo-pupillaire 
cataracte pupillaire 
champ pupillaire 

168 



■MH 



contraction pupillaire 

disque pupillaire rouge 

ecart pupillaire 

ecartement pupillaire 

inegalite pupillaire 

interpupillaire 

membrane capsulo-pupillaire 

membrane pupillaire 

occlusion pupillaire 

oculo-pupillaire 

orifice pupillaire 

paresse pupillaire 

phtisie pupillaire 

reflexe pupillaire a la convergence 

reflexes pupillaires 

resserrement pupillaire 

retrecissement pupillaire 

seclusion pupillaire 

sphincter pupillaire 

vaisseaux capsulo-pupillaires 
pupille f. 

pupil of the eye, a rather regularly rounded orifice in 

the centre of the iris M 

opening in the iris, not in the middle but somewhat 

closer to the internal angle of the eye, through which 

opening the light rays pass to reach the crystalline 

lens; it is round in man L 

See also : abaisseur de la pupille 

dilatation de la pupille 

occlusion de la pupille 

reflexe orbiculaire de la pupille 
pupille artificielle f. 

artificial pupil; opening in the iris made to supplant 
the natural pupil when the latter is absent or has been 
effaced or obliterated L 
pupille d' Argyll-Robertson f. 

Argyll Robertson pupil (loss of light reflex, preserva- 
tion of accomodation) M 
pupillometre m. 

pupillometer, instrument permitting one to evaluate the 
dimensions of the pupillary orifice L 
pupillometrie f. 

pupillometry, measurement of the pupil with a special 
instrument called the pupillometer L 
pupilloscopie f. 

pupilloscopy ; determination of the static refraction of 
the eye by the play of the shadows that one observes 

169 



when one throws light [through the pupil] on the fun- 
dus oculi with the ophthalmoscopic mirror; it is also 
called keratoscopy, retinoscopy, and skiascopy L 
pur See : cecite verbale pure 
Purkinje See: figures de Purkinje 
images de Purkinje 
images de Purkinje-Sanson 
purulent See : choroidite purulente 

conjonctivite muco-purulente 
conjonctivite purulente 
irido-choroidite purulente 
ophtalmie purulente 
ophtalmie purulente des nouveau-nes 
pustuleux See : conjonctivite pustuleuse 
pyoctanine f. 

pyoktanin, apyonin ; the name of different aniline dyes, 
blue (methyl violet), yellow (auramine), which are 
antiseptic and nontoxic, used in surgery and in ocu- 
listics for the treatment of wounds and of ulcerations ; 
yellow pyoktanin is almost exclusively reserved for eye 
surgery L 
pyophtalmie f. 

pyophthalmia, hypopyon L 
pyramidal See: cataracte pyramidale 



quadrant See : hemianopsie quadrant 

quasi-aveugle m. 

a quasiblind person, one who but half sees; his very 
imperfect vision, however, is sufficient for him to find 
his way about although it considerably restricts his 
choice of work; practically, he is distinguished from a 
blind person in that he is not obliged to entrust himself 
to a guide M 

quatrieme paire f. 

fourth cranial nerve, patheticus M 

queue du sourcil f. 

the temporal termination of the eyebrow M 



rapproche See : vision rapprochee 
rayon visuel m. 

visual ray, which proceeds from the light focus to the 

centre of the eye HDT 

170 



reaction consensuelle f. 

consensual reaction to light M 

reaction hemiopique f. 

hemianopic pupil reaction M 

recidivant See : keratalgie recidivante 

paralysie oculo-motrice periodique recidi- 
vante 

reclinaison de la cataracte f. 

reclinatio lentis, keratonyxis; lowering or crushing of 
the crystalline lens by means of a corneal incision L 

reclinaison des paupieres f. 
ectropion L 

reflexe See : nystagmus reflexe 
vision reflexe 

reflexe consensuel m. 

consensual reaction to light M 

reflexe de convergence m. 
accomodation reflex M 

reflexe orbiculaire de la pupille m. 

orbicular reflex of the pupil, a pupillary contraction ac- 
companying contraction of the orbicularis palpebrarum 
muscle M 

reflexe photomoteur m. 

light reflex, photomotor reflex; pupillary reaction to 
light; movements of contraction or dilatation of the 
pupil produced by variations in light intensity M 

reflexe pupillaire a la convergence m. 
accomodation reflex of the pupil M 

reflexes pupillaires m. 

pupillary reflexes, modifications in diameter which ap- 
pear as the result of reflex actions M 

reforme See : yeux reformes 

refraction f. 

refraction ; phenomenon which consists in the fact that, 
in traversing certain diaphanous substances, the light 
rays which are oblique with respect to these substances 
experience for their part a peculiar action, by virtue of 
which they undergo a change in direction and are 
broken at the place where they penetrate L 
See also: vice de refraction 

refraction dynamique f. 

dynamic refraction, accomodation M 

refraction statique f. 
static refraction M 

refringence f. 

refringence; quality of that which is refringent; pro- 
perty of causing a refraction of light L 

171 



refringent, ente 

refracting, refractive M 
which causes a refraction L 
See also: pouvoir refringent 

regard m. 

look, aspect, gaze, view; action of considering some- 
thing with the eyes HDT 

action of seeing, action by which one looks at things A 
See also: deviation du regard vers le haut 

deviation spasmodique du regard a un cote 

elevation du regard 

spasme d'elevation du regard 

spasmes du regard a terre 

regard au ciel m. 

anablepsia, upward displacement — ordinarily abrupt — 
of both eyeballs [one of the complications and sequelae 
of epidemic encephalitis] RR2 

regard au plafond m. 

anablepsia, abrupt upward deviation of the eyes [one of 
the complications and sequelae of epidemic encepha- 
litis] B 

regard force m. 

anablepsia, upward displacement — ordinarily abrupt — 
of both eyeballs [one of the complications and sequelae 
of epidemic encephalitis] RR2 

regard vers le haut m. 

anablepsia, abrupt upward deviation of the eyes [one of 
the complications and sequelae of epidemic encepha- 
litis] B 

regarder 

to see, to look at, to behold, to regard; to direct the 
eyes toward HDT 

to view something, to direct one's gaze toward some- 
thing A 

regarder en avant 

to look straight ahead HDT 

region palpebrale f. 

regions occupied by the palpebral muscle, frontosu- 
perciliary muscle, and levator palpebrae superioris mus- 
cle L 
palpebral region, the eyelids M 

region sourciliere f. 

the region of the eyebrow, the upper edge of the eye- 
socket M 

regie See : astigmatisme conforme a la regie 
astigmatisme contraire a la regie 

regulier See : astigmatisme regulier 

172 



relatif See : scotomes relatifs 
strabisme relatif 

releveur m. 

levator muscle of the eye M 

releveur de la paupiere m. 

levator palpebrae superioris muscle M 

releveur de la paupiere superieure m. 

levator palpebrae superioris muscle; orbitopalpebral 
muscle; muscle whose upper insertion is at the upper 
part of the sheath of the optic nerve, and whose lower 
insertion is at the upper edge of the tarsal plate of the 
upper eyelid L 

[This should read : muscle whose upper insertion or 
origin is at the lesser wing of the sphenoid bone just 
above and a little lateral to the optic foramen, and 
whose lower insertion is into the lower third of the 
face of the tarsal plate] 

releveur palpebral m. 

levator palpebrae superioris muscle M 

remotissimum See : punctum remotissimum 

remotum See : punctum remotum 

Remy See : diploscope de Remy 

repli oculo-palpebral m. 
oculopalpebral fold L 

repli semi-lunaire nu 

plica semilunaris conjunctivae, semilunar fold M 
fold of the bulbar conjunctiva placed outside of the 
caruncle and assuming the form of a vertical crescent 
with the concave part turned outward; it is formed of 
two leaflets of mucosa joined at their free edge, and 
separated in the rest of their extent by a thin piece of 
connective tissue L 

repos visuel m. 

resting the eyes M 

reservoir des larmes m. 
lachrymal sac L 

resserrement pupillaire m. 

narrowing of the pupil, pupillary stricture M 

retine f. 

retina, membrane formed in the fundus oculi by an 
expansion of the optic nerve A 

the innermost tunic of the eye, a grayish membrane, 
semitransparent and very thin, which embraces the 
vitreous humour and lies between it and the choroid, 
without adhering to either L 
See also: artere centrale de la retine 
chorioretine 

173 



commotion de la retine 

dechirures de la retine 

decollement de la retine 

gliome de la retine 
retine "en entonnoir" f. 
"funnel" retina M 
retine "en parapluie" f. 

"umbrella" retina M 
retinien, ienne 

retinal, referable to the retina M 
See also: apoplexie retinienne 

apoplexie sous-retinienne 

arteres cilio-retiniennes 

cilio-retinien 

cone retinien 

decollement retinien 

gliome retinien 

horizon retinien 

hydropisie sous-retinienne 

image retinienne 

pigmentation retinienne 

pourpre retinien 

sous-retinien 

sporotrichose chorioretinienne 

sus-retinien 

vaisseaux cilio-retiniens 

vaisseaux retiniens 
retinite f. 

retinitis, inflammation of the retina L 
retinite albuminurique f. 

retinitis albuminurica ; bilateral retinal lesions caused 
by nephritis and essentially characterised by the pre- 
sence of haemorrhages and of white spots upon the 
retina M 

peripapillary hyperaemia with oedema sometimes com- 
bined with a veritable neuroretinitis ; it is found prin- 
cipally in subacute nephrites L 
retinite brightique f. 

retinitis referable to Bright's disease, retinitis albumi- 
nurica M 
retinite circinee f. 

circinate retinitis M 
retinite congestive f. 

congestive retinitis; congestion of the retinal vessels 
observable with the ophthalmoscope, accompanied by 
photophobia and amblyopia L 

174 



retinite diabetique f. 

diabetic retinitis, retinitis occurring in diabetes M 

retinite exsudative f. 

exudative retinitis ; alteration of the retina characterised 
by the presence there of patches formed by leucocytes 
distended by fatty, enlarged granules L 

retinite glycosurique f. 
diabetic retinitis M 

retinite hemorragique f. 

retinitis haemorrhagica M 

retinite leucemique f. 

leukaemic retinitis M 

retinite maculaire atrophique f. 
atrophic macular retinitis M 

retinite pigmentaire f. 

retinitis pigmentosa M 

retinal pigmentation ; occasional hypergenesis of the 
superficial pigmented layer of the choroid, which en- 
croaches upon the retina, rarefies it, and ends by per- 
forating it sometimes ; these small irregular or stellate 
masses give a speckled aspect to the retina [usually in 
the equatorial region] seen with the ophthalmoscope, 
whence the inexact names of tigroid retinitis or pigmented 
retinitis; sometimes disturbances in vision result from 
it L 

retinite ponctuee f. 

retinitis punctata albescens M 

retinite proliferante f. 

proliferating retinitis, retinitis proliferans M 

retinite tigree f. 

retinal pigmentation ; occasional hypergenesis of the 
superficial pigmented layer of the choroid, which en- 
croaches upon the retina, rarefies it, and ends by per- 
forating it sometimes ; these small irregular or stellate 
masses give a speckled aspect to the retina [usually in 
the equatorial region] seen with the ophthalmoscope, 
whence the inexact names of tigroid retinitis or pigmented 
retinitis; sometimes disturbances in vision result from 
it L 

retinochoroi'dien, ienne 
retinochoroid M 

retinoscopie f. 

retinoscopy, pupilloscopy, keratoscopy, skiascopy; de- 
termination of the static refraction of the eye by the 
play of the shadows that one observes when one throws 
light [through the pupil] on the fundus oculi with the 
ophthalmoscopic mirror L 

175 



retreci lacrymal m. 

a person with atresia of the lachrymal canal M 
retrecissement hemiopique m. 

hemiopic stricture M 
retrecissement lacrymal m. 

atresia of the lachrymal canal M 
retrecissement pupillaire m. 

narrowing of the pupil, pupillary stricture M 
retrobulbaire 

retrobulbar, behind the eyeball M 

See also : nevrite retrobulbaire 
retro-choroidien, ienne 

retrochoroid M 

See also : hemorragie retro-choroidienne 
revulse See : globes revulses vers le haut 

yeux revulses en bas 
revulsion en haut f. 

anablepsia, upward displacement — ordinarily abrupt — 

of both eyeballs [one of the complications and sequelae 

of epidemic encephalitis] RR2 
rhinoptie f. 

rhinoptia, internal strabismus, strabismus in which the 

eyes are turned toward the nose L 
rhumatismal See: ophtalmie rhumatismale 
rhyas m. 

rhyas; continual flow of tears, caused by the atrophy 

or the complete absence of the caruncula lacrimalis L 
rhytidosis f. 

rhytidosis, atrophy of the cornea L 
Robertson See: pupille d'Argyll-Robertson 

signe d'Argyll-Robertson 
rose See : oeil rose 
Rosenbach See: signe de Rosenbach 
rotatoire See: nystagmus rotatoire 

roue dentee oculaire f. 

painful slow jerky movement of the eyeball, connected 
with ocular bradykinesia; it indicates impeded move- 
ments of the eyes and is hardly found except during 
chronic encephalitis, in which hypertonia predominates ; 
it tends to occur in a lateral direction and is much rarer 
vertically; when the eye moves, it does so by jerks, 
interrupted by pauses B 

rouge See : disque pupillaire rouge 

rubeolique See: conjonctivite rubeolique 

Ruysch See : membrane de Ruysch 

176 



s* For verbs beginning with s', the entry occurs under the 

verb proper, as : s'aveugler is listed under aveugler 
sac See : cul-de-sac 

cul-de-sac conjunctival 
cul-de-sac inferieur 
cul-de-sac superieur 
sac conjonctival m. 

conjunctival sac M 
sac lacrymal m. 

lachrymal sac M 

small sac whose lower part communicates with the 
nasal canal HDT 

small oblong pouch in the lachrymal canal which ends 
above in a culdesac and continues below with the nasal 
canal ; when the tears have reached this pouch through 
the tear ducts, they pass into the nose through the nasal 
canal L 
Saemisch See : ulcere de Saemisch 
Sanson See : images de Purkinje-Sanson 

images de Sanson 
Scarpa See : clou de Scarpa 
Schioetz See : ophtalmometre de Javal-Schiotz 

tonometre de Schioetz 
Schlemm See : canal ciliaire de Schlemm 
canal de Schlemm 
plexus de Schlemm 
scintillant See : scotome scintillant 

synchisis scintillant 
scirrhophtalmie f. 

scirrhophthalmia, synonym of xerophthalmia L 
scleral, ale 

scleral, referable to the sclerotic M 
See also : cilio-scleral 

coque sclerale 
episcleral 
hyposcleral 
transdural 
sclerectasie f. 

sclerectasia, distension of the sclerotic L 
sclerecto-iridectomie f. 

sclerecto'iridectomy M 
sclerectomie f. 

sclerectomy, section of the sclerotic L 
sclerite f. 

scleritis, episcleritis, sclerotitis ; inflammation of the 
sclerotic, which often accompanies choroiditis L 

177 



sclero-choroidite £. 

sclerochoroiditis, atrophic choroiditis; simultaneous in- 
flammation of the sclerotic and of the choroid, in which 
these membranes become thin and adhere to each other 
without any diseased substance between them L 

sclero-choroidite anterieure f. 

anterior sclerochoroiditis; it is rare; it causes sharp 
pains in the eyesocket, a peculiar hardness of the eye- 
ball, and disturbances in vision characterised by photo- 
phobia and myopia; it often accompanies recurrent 
iritis, and may lead to the formation of an anterior 
staphyloma L 

sclero-choroidite posterieure f. 

posterior sclerochoroiditis, in which posterior staphy- 
loma is constant ; the lesion is of an atrophic nature L 

sclero-conjonctivite f. 

scleroconjunctivitis, simultaneous inflammation of the 
sclerotic and of the conjunctiva L 

sclero-corneen 

sclerocorneal M 

See also : limbe sclero-corneen 

sclero-keratite f. 

sclerokeratitis ; the formation of one or several small 
whitish tumours, inflammatory in nature, the size of a 
millet seed, under the conjunctiva, 3 or 5 millimetres 
away from the cornea ; circumscribed redness about the 
cornea, with vascular bundles that proceed from it to 
the internal angle of the eye; at the same time there 
form as many bluish white intracorneal semilunar spots 
as there are small tumours ; they often leave an opaline 
spot upon the cornea after healing L 

sclero-keratite tuberculeuse f. 

tuberculous sclerokeratitis, anterior scleral localisation 
and corneal localisation of tuberculosis; it is observed 
mainly in young women M 

sclero-limbique 

sclerolimbic M 
sclerophtalmie f. 

sclerophthalmia, xerophthalmia L 
sclerosis f. 

ciliary blepharitis L 

sclerotical, ale 

sclerotic, referable to the sclerotic M 
See also: episclerotical 

178 



scleroticien See : optico-trochlei-scleroticien 
orbito-extus-scleroticien 
orbito-intus-scleroticien 
sous-optico-spheno-scleroticien 
sus-optico-pheni-scleroticien 

scleroticonyxis f. 

scleroticonyxis, opening made in the sclerotic in order 
to reach the crystalline lens and to operate on its dis- 
placement L 

scleroticotomie f. 

scleroticotomy, incision of the sclerotic L 

sclerotidectomie f. 

sclerotidectomy, excision of the sclerotic L 

sclerotique f. 

sclerotic, sclerotica, sclera, white of the eye M 

white membrane, called cornea opaca, which forms the 

greater part of the outer eyeball HDT 

name of a fibrous membrane which envelops the whole 

eye A 

the exterior membrane of the eye L 

See also: ponction de la sclerotique 

staphylome anterieur de la sclerotique 

sclerotite f. 

sclerotitis, scleritis, episcleritis; inflammation of the 
sclerotic, which often accompanies choroiditis L 

sclerotomie f. 

sclerotomy, scleroticotomy L 

scolaire See : myopie scolaire 

scotome m. 

scotoma, a zone where the vision is null in the field of 
vision M 

a more or less extensive spot — rounded, dark gray or 
black, motionless, rarely multiple — which occupies the 
centre of the visual axis or its vicinity; it covers up a 
portion of the object at which the patient looks, and in 
which he believes that he sees a spot which hides a 
portion of it ; the result is partial or lateral vision ; sco- 
toma must not be confused with muscae volitantes L 
See also : hemianopsie en scotome 

scotome annulaire m. 

annular scotoma, crescent-shaped scotoma ; a particular 

form of the peripheral scotoma M 
scotome central m. 

central scotoma, a central zone of the field of vision 

where perception is null or greatly weakened M 

179 



scotome en croissant m. 

crescent-shaped scotoma, annular scotoma ; a particular 

form of the peripheral scotoma M 
scotome hemiopique m. 

hemiopic scotoma, present in scotoma hemianopia M 

scotome objectif m. 

positive scotoma; a dark spot that appears abruptly, 
projects itself on objects viewed, and moves with the 
eye ; there is no light perception throughout this spot M 

scotome peripherique m. 
peripheral scotoma M 

scotome scintillant m. 

scintillating scotoma, which occurs in ophthalmic mi- 
graine ; the spot is often dark at the centre and has 
luminous contours showing the colours of the spec- 
trum ; its angles have been compared with the fortifica- 
tions of Vauban M 

scotomes relatifs m. 

relative scotomata M 

scrofuleux See : conjonctivite scrofuleuse 
ophtalmie scrofuleuse 

se For verbs beginning with se, the entry occurs under the 
verb proper, as : se frotter is listed under frotter 

sec, seche See : ophtalmie seche 

seclusion pupillaire f. 

pupillary seclusion, circular adhesion of the whole pu- 
pillary edge of the iris to the crystalline lens ; annular 
synechia, circular synechia M 

secondaire See : cataracte secondaire 
glaucome secondaire 

secretion des larmes f. 

secretion of tears, lachrymal secretion HDT 

secteur See: hemianopsie en secteur 

section du muscle ciliaire f. 

section of the ciliary muscle ; an operation of value at 
the beginning of a staphyloma and in cases of inflamma- 
tion of some part of the eye, with pain due to increased 
intraocular pressure; it at once calms the pains L 

segment anterieur m. 

anterior segment (optic nerve, iris, and ciliary body) M 

segment posterieur m. 

posterior segment (optic nerve, choroid, and peripa- 
pillary circle) M 

semi-lunaire See : pli semilunaire 

repli semilunaire 

180 



senile See : arc senile 

cataracte senile 
cercle senile 

sens chromatique m. 

chromatic sense, the property of differentiating co- 
lours M 

sensibilite chromatique f. 

chromatic sense, the property of differentiating co- 
lours M 

sensibilite lumineuse f. 
light sense M 

sensoriel See : aphasie sensorielle 

aphasie sensorielle de Wernicke 

serein See : goutte sereine 

serrata See : ora serrata 

serretelle f. 

serretelle, cystitome adapted for the removal of debris 
from the capsule of the crystalline lens and secondary 
cataracts through the cornea L 

ses See : chausser ses lunettes 
conserver ses lunettes 
essuyer ses larmes 
essuyer ses yeux 
frotter ses yeux 

sideroscopie f. 

sideroscopy M 

signe d'Argyll-Robertson m. 

Argyll Robertson pupil sign, absence of pupillary re- 
action to light whereas reaction to accomodation is 
preserved M 

signe de Bell m. 

Bell's phenomenon; movement of the eyeball upward 
and outward when the patient is ordered to close the 
eyelid on the paralysed side; this sign is found in peri- 
pheral facial paralysis, but does not exist, on the con- 
trary, in facial paralysis of central origin L 

signe de Berger m. 

Berger's sign; deformation of the pupil, which becomes 
elliptic, with a large transverse or oblique diameter; 
this sign is found at the beginning of tabes and of ge- 
neral paresis, in paralysis of the third cranial nerve L 

signe de de Graefe m. 

de Graefe's sign, absence of synchronism between look- 
ing down and lowering the free edge of the upper eye- 
lid ; it is seen in exophthalmic goitre M 
absence of synergy between the movements of the eye- 
lid and those of the eyeball especially apparent in lower- 

181 



ing of the eyelid ; it is a symptom of exophthalmic goi- 
tre ; it may appear apart from exophthalmos ; it seems 
to be due to a disturbance in the innervation of the eye- 
lid L 

signe de Jellinek m. 

Jellinek's sign, very pronounced pigmentation of the 
eyelids; it is seen in exophthalmic goitre M 

signe de Moebius m. 

Moebius's sign, insufficiency of accomodation giving 
rise to a more or less marked degree of asthenopia; it 
is seen in exophthalmic goitre M 
difficulty in convergence observed in exophthalmic 
goitre L 

signe de Rosenbach m. 

Rosenbach's sign, absence or rareness of winking of the 
eyelids, giving one a fixed look; it is seen in exoph- 
thalmic goitre M 

signe de Stellwag m. 

Stellwag's sign, slight retraction of the upper eyelid 
causing the palpebral aperture to widen; it is seen in 
exophthalmic goitre M 

elongation of the palpebral aperture : the patient sleeps 
with his eyes open because, even during sleep, the eye- 
lids do not succeed in covering the whole eyeball; this 
sign is found in exophthalmic goitre L 

siliqueux See: cataracte aride siliqueuse 

sillon caronculo-palpebral m. 

carunculopalpebral groove M 

simple See : a la vue simple 

astigmatisme myopique simple 
astigmatisme simple 
conjonctivite catarrhale simple 
glaucome simple 
oeil simple 

skiascopie f. 

skiascopy, Cuignet-Parent's method; an objective pro- 
cess for determining the total refraction of the eye- 
ball M 

keratoscopy, retinoscopy, pupilloscopy, Cuignet's 
method; determination of the static refraction of the 
eye by the play of the shadows that one observes when 
one throws light [through the pupil] on the fundus 
oculi with the ophthalmoscopic mirror; study of the 
pupillary shadows with the ordinary ophthalmoscope, 
permitting a rapid diagnosis of the principal anomalies 
of refraction (hypermetropia, myopia, astigmatism), 

182 



following the direction of the pupillary shadow with 
respect to the movements of the mirror L 

skiascopique 

skiascopic, referable to skiascopy M 

sol ciliaire m. 

the groundwork of the cilia M 

sonde a voies lacrymales f. 

lachrymal sound, a sound of small calibre for use in the 
lachrymal canal M 

soudure de Knies f. 

union of Knies, Knies's adhesion ; adhesion of the peri- 
phery of the iris to the periphery of the cornea; this 
adhesion cannot be detected during life [except possi- 
bly with the gonioscope of E. Troncoso], its diagnosis 
is purely a matter of anatomic pathology (definition 
given on page 91 of Morax's textbook "Glaueome et 
glaucomateux") 

sourcil m. 

eyebrow M 

the hair which forms an arch at the base of the fore- 
head, above the eye A 

the internal extremity of the eyebrow is called the head, 
and the external extremity tail L 
See also : colobome du sourcil 
defroncer les sourcils 
froncement des sourcils 
froncer les sourcils 
queue du sourcil 
tete du sourcil 

sourcil brise m. 

broken eyebrow, an eyebrow evincing irregular inter- 
ruptions, caused by alopecia syphilitica ; this condition 
is called also "alopecie en clairiere" M 

sourcil broussailleux m. 

a condition of the eyebrow caused by alopecia syphili- 
tica, which thins out the eyebrow and gives the hairs 
an irregular direction M 

sourcilier, ere 

superciliary, referable to the eyebrows M 
See also : alopecie sourciliere 

arcade sourciliere 

artere sourciliere 

fronto-sourcilier 

infrasourcilier 

muscle sourcilier 

region sourciliere 

183 



sourcillier See : espace inter-sourcillier 
inter-sourcillier 

souris f. 

one of the names of nystagmus L 

sous-capsulaire 

subcapsular L 

See also: cataracte sous-capsulaire 

sous-conjonctival, ale 

subconjunctival M 
See also : cysticerque sous-conjonctival 
ecchymose sous-conjonctivale 
glandes sous-conjonctivales 
lipome sous-conjonctival 

sous-optico-spheno-scleroticien m. 

rectus inferior muscle of the eye L 

sous-orbitaire 

infraorbital, suborbital L 
See also : canal sous-orbitaire 

sous-retinien, ienne 

subretinal, below the retina M 
See also: apoplexie sous-retinienne 
hydropisie sous-retinienne 

spasme accomodatif m. 

spasm of accomodation, spasm of the ciliary muscle 
evinced by a modification in the amplitude of accomo- 
dation M 

spasme de l'abaissement m. 

catablepsia, spasm of lowering of the eyes, downward 
revulsion of the eyes [one of the complications and se- 
quelae of epidemic encephalitis] TB 

spasme de Taccomodation m, 

spasm of accomodation, spasm of the ciliary muscle 
evinced by a modification in the amplitude of accomo- 
dation M 

spasme d'elevation du regard m. 

anablepsia, abrupt upward deviation of the eyes [one 
of the complications and sequelae of epidemic ence- 
phalitis] B 
See also : elevation du regard 

spasme des inferogyres m. 

catablepsia, abrupt downward deviation of the eyes; it 
usually represents the initial phase of bascule deviation 
(more rarely it forms the terminal phase) [one of the 
complications and sequelae of epidemic encephalitis] B 

spasme orbiculaire m. 

spasm of the orbicular muscle of the eye M 

184 



spasme tonique paroxystique des superogyres m. 

anablepsia, upward displacement — ordinarily abrupt — 
of both eyeballs [one of the complications and sequelae 
of epidemic encephalitis] RR2 

spasmes a bascule m. 

bascule-movement spasms, vertical or horizontal devia- 
tion of the eyeballs with displacement upward or 
downward, to the right or to the left, during the same 
attack; spasms in two directions successively in the 
course of a single attack RR2 

during the same attack the eyes look, for instance, first 
up, then down; more rarely, before an attack of ana- 
blepsia, there is a period of involuntary downward 
hypertonia lasting several minutes, even half an hour 
[one of the complications and sequelae of epidemic en- 
cephalitis] RR1 

spasmes du regard a terre m. 

catablepsia [one of the complications and sequelae of 
epidemic encephalitis] RR1 

spasmes oculaires vers le haut m. 

anablepsia, upward displacement — ordinarily abrupt — 
of both eyeballs [one of the complications and sequelae 
of epidemic encephalitis] RR2 

spasmes vers le bas m. 

catablepsia, involuntary downward displacement of the 
eyes [one of the complications and sequelae of epidemic 
encephalitis] RR2 

spasmodique See: deviation spasmodique du regard a un 
cote 

entropion spasmodique 
strabisme spasmodique 

speculum oculi m. 

ophthalmostat, speculum oculi L 

spheno See : sous-optico-spheno-scleroticien 

spherometre See : cylindro-spherometre 

sphincter irien m. 

sphincter iridis muscle, sphincter of the iris M 

sphincter pupillaire m. 

sphincter of the pupil M 

spinal See : centre cilio-spinal 

spintheropie f. 

spintheropia (Sichel), synchysis scintillans (Des- 
marres) ; painless eye disease characterised by the pre- 
sence of brilliant dots resembling very numerous 
sparks, which fluctuate at the fundus oculi and are visi- 
ble for several seconds; when the eye moves, they 
seem to increase in number, and the whole fundus 

185 



oculi is strewn with them; this phenomenon is due to 
the presence of cholesterol in the state of lamellar 
crystals, which float in the vitreous humour and reflect 
light; this crystallisation may exist in the crystalline 
lens still in its capsule L 

sporotrichose chorioretinienne f. 

chorioretinal sporotrichosis, uveal localisation of sporo- 
trichosis M 

sporotrichose lacrymale f. 

lachrymal sporotrichosis, primary infection of the la- 
chrymal canal by Sporotrichum beurmanni M 

sporotrichose primitive de la conjonctive f. 

primary sporotrichosis of the conjunctiva M 

staphylome m. (With circumflex accent) 

staphyloma ; tumour which forms upon the eyeball, and 
which resembles a grapeseed A 

the convexity shown by the cornea when distended by 
the aqueous humour without loss of its transparency 
or with opacity; rarefaction of the cornea with adhe- 
sion to the iris, and protrusion of those membranes 
through the humours of the eye; the projection of the 
iris through a perforation of the cornea; certain lumps 
formed by the sclerotic L 

staphylome m. (Without circumflex accent) 
staphyloma M 

protrusion of the transparent cornea distended by the 
aqueous humour, protrusion of the iris through a per- 
foration of the cornea HDT 

staphylome anterieur de la sclerotique m. 

anterior staphyloma of the sclerotic, staphyloma of the 
ciliary body; name given to bluish lumps that some- 
times form at the surface of the sclerotic, around the 
circumference of the cornea; staphyloma of the sclerotic 
always supposes the rarefaction of this membrane L 

staphylome du corps ciliaire m. 
Same as preceding entry 

staphylome pellucide m. 

keratoconus, characterised by a conic deformation of 
the cornea in which the deformation is more marked 
at the centre than at the periphery of this membrane; 
it most often begins between the ages of twelve and 
thirty M 

staphylome posterieur m. (With circumflex accent) 

posterior staphyloma; a distension of the sclerotic in 
the posterior segment of the eye which augments the 
anteroposterior diameter of the eyeball and which is 
characteristic of myopia; there the choroid is altered, 

186 



atrophied, which is why the disease is also called 
posterior sclerochoroiditis ; the functional disturbances oc- 
casioned by posterior staphyloma are those of myopia ; 
its complications are muscae volitantes, frequent altera- 
tions of the macula, and sometimes detachment of the 
retina L 

staphylome posterieur m. (Without circumflex accent) 
staphyloma posticum, posterior staphyloma; a scleral 
depression outside of the papilla M 

staphylotomie f. 

staphylotomy, operation consisting in excising a cica- 
tricial staphyloma of the cornea and of the iris L 

stase See : papille de stase 

stase papillaire f. 

papillary stasis, choked disc, papilledema, oedematous 
neuritis, "Stauungspapille" ; an aspect — most often bi- 
lateral — in which the papillae are oedematous and the 
venous vessels of the retina are dilated as the result of 
an intracranial disturbance [such as pressure] M 

statique See : refraction statique 

Stellwag See : signe de Stellwag 

stenopeique 

stenopaeic, which renders narrow; said of an instru- 
ment to facilitate vision L 
See also : lunettes stenopeiques 

stereoscope m. 

stereoscopic ; optic instrument permitting one to see 
objects represented with their reliefs and their perspec- 
tives as they appear to the naked eye in nature L 

sthenique See : amblyopic sthenique 

stomocephale m. 

stomocephalus ; cyclocephalic monster that has a single 
eyesocket with two contiguous eyes or a double eye 
occupying the median line, with a nasal system atro- 
phied and in the form of a tube, rudimentary jaws and 
a very imperfect mouth or none at all L 

strabique 

s. a crosseyed person, a person with strabismus 
a. referable to strabismus M 

strabisme m. 

strabismus, crosseye, squint; it is not a disease, but a 
symptom characterised by the deviation of the optic 
axis of one eye with respect to the other M 
defect of the eyes which does not permit them to be di- 
rected at the same time toward the same object A 
squinting; deviation of the gaze, because of which, 

187 



while one eye looks at a certain point, the other eye is 
turned toward another point of space L 
See also : crochet a strabisme 

strabisme alternant m. 

alternating strabismus ; it occurs when the eyes deviate 
alternately L 

alternating strabismus, said when it is sometimes one 
eye and sometimes the other that undergoes the devia- 
tion M 

strabisme anisometropique m. 

anisometropic strabismus (a form of divergent stra- 
bismus which is often the consequence of anisometropia 
dating from early childhood) M 

strabisme cicatriciel m. 

cicatricial strabismus, mechanical strabismus; devia- 
tion of the eye produced by the presence of a tumour 
that has developed in the cavity of the eyesocket, or by 
a wound with loss of substance, or by a cicatricial ad- 
hesion of the eyelids to the eyeball L 

strabisme concomitant m, 

concomitant strabismus, which differs from paralytic 
strabismus in that the paralytic muscular impotence 
appears in certain movements and not in all move- 
ments M 

strabisme convergent m. 

convergent strabismus, or internal strabismus, said 
when the deviation equals an exaggerated conver- 
gence M 

in convergent strabismus the eye is turned inward ; it 
may be unilateral or bilateral L 

strabisme deorsumvergent m. 

strabismus deorsum vergens, in which the deviated eye 
is lowered M 

strabisme divergent m. 

divergent strabismus, or external strabismus, said when 
the optic axes diverge M 

in divergent strabismus the eye is turned outward ; it is 
rarer than convergent strabismus and has fewer va- 
rieties L 

strabisme divergent periodique m. 
periodic divergent strabismus M 

strabisme externe m. 

external strabismus, or divergent strabismus, said when 
the optic axes diverge M 

strabisme latent m. 

latent strabismus, muscular asthenopia; it is characte- 
rised by the impossibility of prolonging work requiring 

188 



the constant application of the eyes without considera- 
ble eye fatigue, a feeling of weight and even of pain in 
the forehead and the temples; at the same time vision 
becomes confused; this state ends as soon as the pa- 
tient rests, but it is not slow in reappearing when he 
resumes the work; it is due to insufficient contractile 
force of the internal rectus muscles L 

strabisme mecanique m. 

mechanical strabismus, cicatricial strabismus; devia- 
tion of the eye produced by the presence of a tumour 
that has developed in the cavity of the eyesocket, or by 
a wound with loss of substance, or by a cicatricial ad- 
hesion of the eyelids to the eyeball L 

strabisme monolateral m. 

monolateral strabismus, unilateral strabismus; it oc- 
curs when the deviated eye is always the same one L 

strabisme optique m. 

optic strabismus ; it is symptomatic of a visual disorder 
or of an anomaly in refraction ; its commonest form is 
convergent strabismus L 

strabisme paralytique m. 

paralytic strabismus, in which the deviation is the con- 
sequence of an oculomotor paralysis M 

strabisme periodique m. 

periodic strabismus, which appears solely when one 
looks in certain directions M 

strabismus is periodic when the deviation is produced 
only at certain moments L 

strabisme relatif m, 

relative strabismus, which exists only for certain posi- 
tions of the gaze L 

strabisme spasmodique m. 

spasmodic strabismus ; certain causes — such as hys- 
teria, reflex actions — may provoke a more or less 
marked and permanent contracture of the muscles of the 
eye and bring about a deviation of the gaze ; this stra- 
bismus is rarer than nystagmus, which is the intermittent 
spasm of the motor muscles of the eye L 

strabisme sursumvergent m. 

strabismus sursum vergens, vertical strabismus, in 
which the deviated eye is higher than the normal eye M 

strabisme vertical m. 

Same as preceding entry 

strabisme vrai m. 

concomitant strabismus, which differs from paralytic 
strabismus in that the paralytic muscular impotence 

189 



appears in certain movements only and not in all move- 
ments M 
strabometre m. 

strabometer, strabismometer M 

instrument designed to measure the degree of deviation 
of a squinting eye L 
strabometrie f. 

strabometry M 
strabotomie f. 

strabotomy, operation for correcting strabismus; it 
consists in displacing the sclerotic insertion of the re- 
tracted muscle by cutting it and allowing it to form 
again in back of its original site (tenotomy) L 
strabotomiste m. 

strabotomist, one who practises strabotomy L 
stratifie See : cataracte stratifiee 
streptocoque See : conjonctivite a streptocoques 

conjonctivite lacrymale a streptocoques 
dacryocystite lacrymale a streptocoques 
pericystite lacrymale a streptocoques 
strie See : cataracte striee 
subaigu See : conjonctivite subaigue 

conjonctivite subaigue diplobacillaire 
glaucome subaigu 
substance hyaloide f. 

vitreous humour L 
superbe m. 

name given to the rectus superior muscle, or levator of 
the eye, which enters into action when this organ ex- 
presses haughtiness L 
superieur See: bord orbitaire superieur 
canal lacrymal superieur 
cul-de-sac superieur 
deviation superieure 
droit superieur 

elevateur de la paupiere superieure 
muscle droit superieur 
oblique superieur de l'oeil 
paupiere superieure 
point lacrymal superieur 
releveur de la paupiere superieure 
superogyres See : crises des superogyres 

spasme tonique paroxystique des supero- 
gyres 
suppure See : dacryocystite suppuree chronique 
sur See : fluxion sur les yeux 
surcilier, iere (L) See: sourcilier 

190 



sursumvergent See : strabisme sursumvergent 
sus-optico-pheni-scleroticien m. 

the rectus superior of the eye L 

sus-retinien, ienne 

supraretinal, above the retina M 

symblepharon m. 

symblepharon, partial or total atresia of the conjuncti- 
val surface following destructive lesions of the whole 
thickness of the mucous membrane M 
adhesion of the eyelids to the eyeball, ordinarily follow- 
ing a burn or an ulceration, rarely congenital ; it differs 
from ankyloblepharon in that, in the latter, the eyelids 
adhere to each other and not to the eyeball L 

symblepharon total m. 

total symplepharon, in which all the mucous membrane 
has been destroyed M 

sympathique See: cataracte sympathique 
ophtalmie sympathique 
ptosis sympathique 
syndrome sympathique 

sympathisant See : oeil sympathisant 

sympathise See: oeil sympathise 

synchisis m. 

synchysis, a state of the vitreous humour characterised 
anatomically by a more fluid consistency M 

synchisis etincelant m. 

synchysis scintillans M 

synchisis scintillant m. 

synchysis scintillans M 

synchitonitis f. 

adhesion of the conjunctiva L 

synchysis m. 

synchysis, name given by the ancients to the disorder 
of the humours of the eye due to the traumatic or 
spontaneous rupture of the inner tunics L 

synchysis etincelant m. 

synchysis scintillans (Desmarres), spintheropia (Si- 
chel) ; painless eye disease characterised by the pre- 
sence of brilliant dots resembling very numerous sparks, 
which fluctuate at the fundus oculi and are visible for 
several seconds ; when the eye moves, they seem to in- 
crease in number, and the whole fundus oculi is strewn 
with them ; this phenomenon is due to the presence of 
cholesterol in the state of lamellar crystals, which float 
in the vitreous humour and reflect light ; this crystalli- 
sation may exist in the crystalline lens still in its cap- 
sule L 

191 



syndectomie f. 

syndectomy ; excision of a part of the healthy conjunc- 
tiva around the cornea, for the purpose of arresting the 
nutrition of the opaque layers of the cornea in cases of 
pannus and of sclerosis L 

syndrome de Bitot m. 

Bitot's syndrome; conjunctival xerosis existing with 
hemeralopia M 

syndrome de Claude Bernard-Horner m. 

Horner's syndrome; a group of oculopalpebral dis- 
turbances produced by injury to the nerve fibres of 
the sympathetic which are distributed to the organ of 
vision (it was first studied by Pourfour du Petit) ; the 
disturbances include diminution of the palpebral aper- 
ture with lowering of the upper eyelid, stricture of the 
pupil without alteration of the reflexes, and sometimes 
conjunctival hyperaemia, anhydrosis, and facial hemi- 
atrophy M 

syndrome de Gowers m. 

Gowers's sign ; syndrome characterised by the fact that 
the pupil reacts to light not by contracting, but by di- 
lating; it is sometimes observed in the pretaxic period 
of tabes, at the beginning of general paresis, and in 
certain paralyses of the third cranial nerve L 

syndrome de Pourfour du Petit m. 

Horner's syndrome; a group of oculopalpebral dis- 
turbances produced by injury to the nerve fibres of the 
sympathetic which are distributed to the organ of vision 
(it was first studied by Pourfour du Petit) ; the dis- 
turbances include diminution of the palpebral aperture 
with lowering of the upper eyelid, stricture of the pupil 
without alteration of the reflexes, and sometimes con- 
junctival hyperaemia, anhydrosis, and facial hemi- 
atrophy M 

syndrome sympathique m. 
Same as preceding entry 

synechie f. 

synechia; adhesion of the iris to the cornea (anterior 
synechia), or to the capsule of the crystalline lens 
(posterior synechia) L 

synechie anterieure f. 

anterior synechia, adhesion of the iris to the cornea M 

synechie posterieure f. 

posterior synechia, adhesion of the iris to the anterior 
capsule of the crystalline lens M 

synizesis f. 

synizesis, occlusion of the pupil produced by a sponta- 

192 



neous inflammation or one occurring after operation 
for cataract L 
See also: fausse synizesis 
synizesis congenitale f. 

pupillary cataract, congenital synizesis ; it occurs when 
the pupillary membrane persists until birth and a child 
is born with complete occlusion of the pupil ; it necessi- 
tates the creation of an artificial pupil L 
synopsie f. 

synopsy; association of visual phenomena with sensa- 
tions given by the other senses, such as chromatic audi- 
tion L 
syphilis de la conjonctive f. 

syphilis of the conjunctiva M 
syphilis lacrymale f. 

lachrymal syphilis, syphilis of the lachrymal canal and 
the surrounding tissues M 
syphilitique See : blepharite syphilitique 

blepharite ulcereuse syphilitique 
choroidite syphilitique 
conjonctivite syphilitique 
tarsite syphilitique 
tarsite syphilitique gommeuse 
tarsite ulcereuse syphilitique 



tache See : cataracte a taches disseminees 

tache aveugle f. 
blind spot M 

tache de la cornee f. 

pin, film ; collective name for albugo, leucoma, and nephe- 
lium, that is, all the spots or opacities that appear in 
the cornea and that disturb the vision to a more or less 
marked degree depending on their extent, their site, 
and the depth of the corneal tissue that they occupy L 

tache de Mariotte f. 

Mariotte's spot, blind spot (of the retina), optic pa- 
pilla, physiologic scotoma M 
punctum caecum L 

tache jaune f. 

yellow spot, macula flava, lutea centralis; it is located 
inside of the papilla and occupies the optic centre of 
the eye, in form it is oval, transverse; it is at most 3 
millimetres long; its centre is sunken (foramen cae- 
cum, fovea centralis) and has wrongly been considered 
as a veritable hole (foramen centrale Soemmeringii) L 

193 



taches metalliques de la cornee f. 

metallic spots upon the cornea (Desmarres) ; spots pro- 
duced by silver oxide or silver chloride, resulting from 
the decomposition of a silver nitrate pencil passed over 
ulcers of the cornea, or by the lead precipitated by lead 
water ; they are due to the fixation of the metallic salts 
upon and in the epithelial cells in the form of opaque 
granulations that deprive these elements of their trans- 
lucidity L 

taie f. 

pin, film ; collective name for albugo, leucoma, and nephe- 
lium, that is, all the spots or opacities that appear in 
the cornea and that disturb the vision to a more or less 
marked degree depending on their extent, their site, 
and the depth of the corneal tissue that they occupy L 
opacity of the cornea M 

opaque white spot which sometimes forms upon the 
cornea, the vulgar term for albugo HDT 

tapis m. 

tapetum, membrana versicolor oculi ; portion of the 
choroid which gives metallic reflections changing with 
the incidences of light; it is situated at the external 
part of the insertion of the optic nerve, above, or below, 
or sometimes both above and below, and even all 
around this insertion; the tapetum does not exist in 
man, monkeys, rodents, birds, et cetera; it exists in 
ruminants, the horse, seals, many carnivorous animals, 
et cetera ; this brilliant and metallic appearance results 
from a phenomenon of interference, which itself results 
from the fact that at the tapetum the cells of the cho- 
roid, although existing with their characteristics of 
form, size, et cetera, lack pigmented granulations or do 
not contain enough of them to take away all their 
transparency ; these cells often contain one or two drops 
of oil L 

taraxis f. 

taraxis, alteration of the vision resulting from a slight 
ophthalmia or from a vulnerating cause L 

taroupe f. 

hair growing between the eyebrows HDT 

tarse 

m. tarsus of the eye 

a. tarsal, referable to the tarsus of the eye M 
See also : cartilage tarse 

194 



tarsien, ienne 

tarsal, referable to the tarsus of the eye M 
See also : conjonctive tarsienne 
conjonctivite tarsienne 

tarsite f. 

tarsitis; inflammation of the tarsal cartilage following 
conjunctivitis or eczema; it may also be of syphilitic 
origin (Magawly) and cause the eyelashes to fall out L 

tarsite marginale f. 

marginal tarsitis, syphilitic ulcerous blepharitis M 

tarsite syphilitique f. 

syphilitic tarsitis M 

tarsite syphilitique gommeuse f. 

gummatous syphilitic tarsitis M 

tarsite ulcereuse syphilitique f. 

ulcerous tarsitis caused by syphilis M 

tarso-marginoplastie f. 

tarsomarginoplasty, plastic surgery of the tarsus and 
margin of the eyelid, used in cicatricial entropion of 
the lower eyelid M 
See also : marginoplastie 

tarsorrhaphie f. 

tarsorrhaphy, suture of the tarsal cartilages L 

tarsostrophie f. 

tarsostrophy ; operation which consists, in the case of 
trachoma, in turning back a myrtiform fragment of the 
tarsal cartilage after dissecting it L 

tarsotomie f. 

tarsotomy; operation which consists, in the case of en- 
tropion, in resecting a portion of the tarsal cartilage in 
order to straighten it L 

tatouage de la cornee m. 

tattooing of the cornea, a process designed to hide cor- 
neal spots ; it consists in coating the superficial layers 
of the spot with India ink L 

teinte See : verres de teinte fumee 

telescope a lentilles m. 

glass which makes objects appear close to us (same as 
lunette d'approche, telescope dioptrique) HDT 

telescope binoculaire m. 

a sort of double telescope (archaic) HDT 

telescope dioptrique m. 

glass which makes objects appear close to us (same as 
lunette d'approche, telescope a lentilles) HDT 

temporal See : commissure temporale 

hemianopsie bitemporale 
hemianopsie temporale 

195 



Tenon (The e should not have an acute accent) 
See : aponevrose de Tenon 
capsule de Tenon 
espace de Tenon 

tenonien, ienne 

referable to Tenon's capsule (Morax incorrectly places 
an acute accent on the first e in tenonien) M 

tenonite f. 

tenonitis, inflammatory process localised to Tenon's 
capsule; it always concerns a metastatic infectious lo- 
calisation M 

capsulitis, inflammation of Tenon's capsule L 
(Morax and Littre incorrectly place an acute accent on 
the first e in tenonite) 

tension intra-oculaire f. 

intraocular tension M 

tension oculaire f. 

ocular tension, tension of the eye M 

terne See : yeux ternes 

terre See : spasmes du regard a terre 

tete See : deviation conjuguee de la tete et des yeux 
yeux a fleur de tete 

tete du sourcil f. 

the nasal termination of the eyebrow M 

theatre See : jumelles de theatre 

lorgnettes de theatre 

thrombophlebite orbitaire f. 

orbital thrombophlebitis M 

tic d'elevation des yeux m. 

anablepsia, abrupt upward deviation of the eyes [one 
of the complications and sequelae of epidemic ence- 
phalitis] B 

tigre See : retinite tigree 

tissu conjonctival m. 

conjunctival tissue L 

tissu corneal m. 

corneal tissue, that tissue which forms the cornea L 

tissu corneen m. 

corneal tissue, that tissue which forms the cornea L 

tomate See : iris en tomate 

tonique See : blepharospasme tonique 

spasme tonique paroxystique des superogyres 

tonometre de Schioetz m. 

Schioetz's tonometer (for determining ocular ten- 
sion) M 

torique See : verres toriques 

196 



total See : cataracte totale 

hypermetropic totale 
ophtalmoplegie totale 
symblepharon total 

toxique See : amblyopic toxique 

trachoma m. 

trachoma; one of the names of xerophthalmia, and, in 
Germany, of palpebral granulations L 

trachomateux, euse 

trachomatous M 

See also : pannus trachomateux 

trachome m. 

trachoma, granular conjunctivitis M 

tractus uveal m. 

uveal tract (iris, ciliary body, and choroid) M 

transdural, ale 

transscleral M 

transparent See : cornee transparente 

traumatique See : cataracte traumatique 

keratite traumatique paroxystique 

travail See : myopie du travail 

triade d'Hutchinson f. 

Hutchinson's triad; the syndrome constituted by pa- 
renchymatous keratitis, deafness, and dental altera- 
tions M 

group of signs and stigmata furnished by the examina- 
tion of the eyes, ears, and teeth; they make it possible 
to give a diagnosis of hereditary syphilis ; with refe- 
rence to the eyes, the signs are persistent ocular pains 
in childhood, and the stigmata are lesions of the cornea 
and of the iris L 

trichiasis m. 

trichiasis, deviation of the cilia; the anomaly consists 
in the deviation of one cilium or of several cilia whose 
implantation is normal ; the result is that the cilia come 
into contact with the cornea or the conjunctiva and 
cause ocular irritation M 

a change in the direction of the eyelashes, which turn 
toward the surface of the eyeball, which they irritate; 
it is more commonly observed at the lower eyelid; 
sometimes it is total, most often it is partial, and in still 
other cases all the eyelashes follow their normal di- 
rection but supernumerary cilia have developed upon 
the rim of the eyelid; trichiasis is ordinarily the result 
of entropion, but may exist without it L 

trichophytique See: blepharite trichophytique 

197 



trichromates anormaux m. 

persons who perceive the different colours of the spec- 
trum but do not differentiate all the nuances thereof M 

tristichiasis m. 

tristichiasis, trichiasis in which three supernumerary 
rows of eyelashes are present L 

tritanope m. and f. 

a person with blindness for blue and for yellow, conse- 
quently one who perceives solely red and green M 

trochlei See : optico-trochlei-scleroticien 

trois See: cataracte a trois branches 

troisieme paire f. 

third cranial nerve, oculomotor nerve M 

troisieme paupiere f. 

third eyelid ; semitransparent membrane which, in birds, 
is placed vertically at the inner angle of the eye, be- 
tween the eyeball and the eyelids, and which the animal 
draws at will like a curtain to protect itself from the 
light ; in human beings the winking membrane is repre- 
sented by the plica semilunaris conjunctivae L 

trou optique m. 

optic foramen L 

trouble See : voir trouble 

trouble de Berlin m. 

Berlin's disease, commotio retinae, a milky opacity at 
the posterior pole causing diminution in visual acuity 
following contusion of the eyeball M 

trouble de la cornee m. 

diffuse opalescence throughout the cornea, yet permit- 
ting examination of the iris and of the pupil M 

tube du cristallin m. 

tube of the crystalline lens; nuclear fibre, one of the 
two types of fibres which form the tissue proper of the 
crystalline lens; the nuclear tubes are hollow and more 
superficial than the other type; they form a layer of 
from 2 to 4 tenths of a millimetre at the surface of the 
crystalline lens ; they run parallel, are from 7 to 9 thou- 
sandths of a millimetre wide, flattened out, clearly out- 
lined, finely granular inside, and at intervals have sphe- 
ric or ovoid nuclei 6 thousandths of a millimetre wide, 
which give them a characteristic aspect L 

tuberculeux See : choro'idite tuberculeuse 

sclero-keratite tuberculeuse 

tuberculose conjonctivale f. 

tuberculosis of the conjunctiva; it may be either pri- 
mary or secondary M 

198 



tuberculose de la conjonctive f. 

Same as preceding entry 

tuberculose irienne f. 

tuberculosis of the iris M 

tuberculose lacrymale f. 

lachrymal tuberculosis, tubercular infection of the mu- 
cous membrane of the lachrymal canal M 

tubes de Bowman m. 

corneal tubes, Bowman's tubes; intralamellar lacunae 
in the heart of the corneal layers, among the fibres 
which compose the latter L 

tumeur lacrymale f. 

lachrymal tumour; when any obstacle to the flow of 
tears allows them to reach the lachrymal sac only in 
minimum quantities and slowly, the continuing mucous 
secretion causes distension of the sac and of its integu- 
ments, forming a lachrymal tumour L 

tunique albuginee de l'oeil f. 
sclerotic L 

tunique innominee f. 
sclerotic L 

tylose f. 

ciliary blepharitis L 

tylosis m. 

ciliary blepharitis L 

typhlographe m. 

typhlograph, instrument permitting the blind to 
write L 

typhlose f. 

blindness L 

typique See : colobome typique 

hemianopsie typique 



ulcere de Saemisch m. 

Saemisch's ulcer, serpiginous ulceration of the cornea L 
ulcereux See : blepharite ulcereuse syphilitique 

tarsite ulcereuse syphilitique 
unguis m. 

pterygium (in pathology) L 
unioculaire 

uniocular, monocular, referable to one eye L 

See also: diplopie unioculaire 

199 



uveal, ale 

uveal, referable to the uvea M 
See also : artere uveale 
tractus uveal 

uvee f. 

uvea; choroid membrane of the eye; posterior surface 
of the iris ; corresponding layer of the inner surface of 
the choroid HDT 

pigmented, black, shiny layer of epithelial cells which 
covers the posterior surface of the iris; name that has 
sometimes been given to the corresponding layer of the 
internal surface of the choroid, and even to the system 
of parts represented by the choroid, the ciliary pro- 
cesses, and the iris L 

uveite f. 

uveitis, inflammation of the posterior surface of the 
iris L 



vaccinal See: conjonctivite vaccinale 

vairon masculine a. 

which has the iris of the eye circled with white ; which 
has eyes of different colours HDT 
whose pupil is surrounded by a whitish circle, or with 
one eye of one fashion and one eye of a different fa- 
shion A 

silver-eyed, dispar oculis ; said of individuals whose iris 
is surrounded by a whitish circle, or who do not have 
both eyes the same colour L 
See also: cheval vairon 
yeux vairons 

vaisseaux capsulo-pupillaires m. 

capsulopupillary vessels, the junction of the termina- 
tions of the capsular artery with the network of the 
pupillary membrane L 

vaisseaux ciliaires anterieurs m. 
anterior ciliary vessels M 

vaisseaux cilio-retiniens m. 

cilioretinal vessels, the vessels which traverse the pa- 
pilla along its edges and result from an abnormal rami- 
fication of the ciliary vessels of the sclerotic or of the 
choroid which irrigate a small retinal territory M 

vaisseaux retiniens m. 

vessels of the retina M 

200 



varicocele orbitaire f. 

orbital varicocele, the most apparent symptom of which 
is exophthalmos with alternating enophthalmos M 

variolique See : ophtalmie post-variolique 

ophtalmie variolique primitive 

vasa vorticosa m. 

vasa vorticosa, small ciliary veins in the choroid ; the 
vortices that form the veins of the choroid L 

vasculaire See : arbre vasculaire 

papilles vasculaires 

vascularisation corneenne f. 

corneal vascularisation, a bloodshot state of the cor- 
nea M 

vascularisation oculaire f. 

ocular vascularisation, bloodshot condition of the eye; 
it is characterised by dilatation of the conjunctival and 
scleral vessels, by lachrymation, and often oedema of 
the eyelids M 

vegetant See : cataracte vegetante 

veine centrale f. 

vena centralis retinae M 

veine choroidienne f. 
vena chorioidea L 

veine ophtalmique f. 

vena ophthalmica M 

veines eiliaires f. 

venae ciliares, ciliary veins ; veins originating in the 
choroid proper, the iris, the ciliary muscle, and the 
ciliary processes ; they ordinarily combine to form four 
groups and radiate in each group toward a single trunk ; 
the result is four central vorticose veins (vasa vorti- 
cosa) L 

veines vorticineuses f. 

venae vorticosae, vorticose veins M 

verbal See : cecite verbale 

cecite verbale congenitale 
cecite verbale pure 

veron (HDT) See : vairon 

verre m. 

a pair of glasses or spectacles, a lens M 
See also : cul-de-verre 
oeil de verre 

verre concave m. 

concave lenses or glasses M 
verre convexe m. 

convex lenses or glasses M 

201 



verre negatif m. 

concave lens M 
verre periscopique m. 

periscopic lens; lens in the form of a meniscus, con- 

vexoconcave for farsighted persons (with predominance 

of convexity), concavoconvex for nearsighted persons 

(with predominance of concavity) ; these lenses are 

employed to remedy the inequality and the blurred 

state of vision produced by lenses that have an oval 

focus and are too small L 
verres m. 

glasses, spectacles M 

See also : port des verres 
verres a cataracte m. 

cataract lenses ; convex lenses designed to compensate 

for the diminution in dynamic refraction resulting from 

absence of the crystalline lens in persons operated on 

for cataract L 
verres a double foyer m. 

bifocal glasses M 
verres bifocaux m. 

bifocal glasses M 
verres correcteurs m. 

corrective lenses or glasses M 
verres de lunettes m. 

spectacle lenses; glasses HDT 
verres d'essai m. 

test lenses (for determining refraction) M 
verres de teinte fumee m. 

smoked glasses M 
verres Fieuzal m. 

Fieuzal glasses (bottle green in colour) M 
verres fumes m. 

smoked glasses M 
verres monochromatiques m. 

monochromatic glasses ; coloured lenses which transmit 

only one colour, that of their own shade, because they 

absorb the other light rays L 
verres periscopiques m. 

lenses which increase the extent of the visual field HDT 
verres toriques m. 

toric lenses M 
vers See : deviation des yeux vers le bas 
deviation des yeux vers le haut 
deviation du regard vers le haut 
deviation oculaire vers le haut 
globes revulses vers le haut 

202 



regard vers le haut 
spasmes oculaires vers le haut 
spasmes vers le bas 
vert See : abat-jour verts 
cataracte verte 
vertical See : diplopie verticale 

hemianopsie verticale 
strabisme vertical 
vice de refraction m. 

defect in refraction M 
visibilite f. 

visibility HDT 
visible 

visible HDT 
visiblement 

visibly HDT 
visiometre m. 

a badly formed word for optometer L 
vision f. 

vision, sight HDT 

action of seeing ; active exercise of the sense of sight L 
vision a distance f. 

distant vision; viewing remote objects; ability to see 

for a long distance M 
vision alternante f. 

alternating vision, in which one eye, then the other 

perceive the object successively, but never simultane- 
ously M 
vision axiale f . 

axial vision M 
vision binoculaire f. 

binocular vision; the simultaneous formation, on the 

retina of both eyes, of two images of the same object 

at a different angle, which gives the perception of re- 
lief HDT 
vision eloignee f. 

distant vision; viewing remote objects; ability to see 

for a long distance M 
vision monoculaire f. 

monocular vision, the viewing of objects while using 

but one eye L 
vision peripherique f. 

peripheral vision M 
vision rapprochee f. 

viewing of near objects, close work, near vision M 
vision reflexe f. 

reflex vision HDT 

203 



visuel, elle 

visual, referable to sight or to the eyes M 
See also: acuite visuelle 
angle visuel 
axe visuel 

centre visuel cortical 
champ visuel 
echelle visuelle 
gene visuelle 
rayon visuel 
repos visuel 
vitre m. 

vitreous humour M 
vitre, ee 

vitreous L 

See also : corps vitre 

cysticerque du corps vitre 
humeur vitre 
membrane vitree 
vitreux, euse 

vitreous HDT 
See also : membrane vitreuse 
oeil vitreux 
voies lacrymales f. 

lachrymal canal M 

the collection of organs whose function is to secrete 
tears, to spread them over the eye, then to transmit 
them into the nasal cavities ; they are : the lachrymal 
gland, the puncta lacrimalia and the tear ducts, the 
lachrymal sac, and the nasal canal L 
See also : sonde a voies lacrymales 
voir 

to see; to perceive images which the light rays from 
illuminated objects form at the back of the eye, con- 
verging upon the retina HDT 
voir double 

to see double, to be afflicted with diplopia M 
voir trouble 

to have cloudy or misty vision HDT 
volant See : mouche volante 

mouches volantes 
von Graefe See : couteau de De Graefe 

signe de de Graefe 
vorticineux See : veines vorticineuses 
vorticosa See : vasa vorticosa 
voussure palpebrale f. 

bulging of the eyelid, swelling of the upper eyelid M 

204 



voyant See : demi-voyant 
vrai See : cataracte vraie 
strabisme vrai 
vue f. 

vision, eyesight ; faculty of seeing, of perceiving images 

of objects; the eyes, the organ of sight HDT 

the faculty by means of which one sees ; the one of the 

five senses by means of which one perceives light and 

one distinguishes colours, often even form, distance, 

and movements A 

the one of the five senses of which the eye is the organ, 

and by means of which we distinguish colours L 

See also : a vue d'oeil 

a la vue simple 
acuite de la vue 
avoir la vue basse 
avoir la vue longue 
double-vue 
longue-vue 
lunette de longue vue 
prive de la vue 
vue basse f. 

myopia HDT 

See also : avoir la vue basse 
vue courte f. 

myopia, nearsightedness L 
vue diurne f. 

hemeralopia, night blindness ; disease characterised by 

the dilatation of the pupil with abrupt diminution or 

complete abolition of vision while the sun is below the 

horizon L 
vue double f. 

diplopia L 
vue faible f. 

amblyopia L 

difficulty in distinguishing objects HDT 
vue longue f. 

presbytia, presbyopia, farsightedness L 

the power of seeing for a long distance HDT 

See also : avoir la vue longue 
vue louche f. 

strabismus L 
vue nocturne f. 

nyctalopia L 
vue oblique f. 

strabismus L 

205 



Weeks See : bacille de Weeks 

bacille massue de Weeks 
Wernicke See : aphasie sensorielle de Wernicke 
Willis See : nerf ophtalmique de Willis 



xanthelasma m. 

xanthelasma, a dermatosis characterised by the appear- 
ance of yellow spots, flat or slightly raised; it may be 
widespread or localised, and if localised the patches 
most often occupy the eyelids, and particularly the in- 
ternal angle of the eye; when the eruption [connective 
tissue new growth with fatty degeneration] is gene- 
ralised, it often starts at the eyelids L 

xanthoma m. 

xanthoma; this word is often taken as a synonym of 
xanthelasma L 

xanthopsie f. 

xanthopsia; yellow colour of the eye; yellow colour 
that seems to tinge all objects for patients with jaun- 
dice ; this phenomenon has been attributed to the yellow 
colouration of the ocular media, but it probably comes 
from a nervous disorder, and is rather frequently ac- 
companied by hemeralopia or nyctalopia; xanthopsia 
is observed also after the absorption of santonine L 

xerasie f. 

xerasia, xeransis ; disease of the scalp and of the eye- 
lashes which prevents them from growing and makes 
them resemble down covered with dust L 

xerome m. (L) See: xerophtalmie 

xerophtalmie f. 

xerosis of the conjunctiva, xerophthalmia, xerophthal- 
mus, xerophthalmy ; a symptom which is characterised 
by dryness of the conjunctiva and which is due to deep 
cicatricial lesions of the eye (parenchymatous xerosis) 
or to modifications in the general condition (epithelial 
xerosis) M 

dry ophthalmia, which consists in a smarting, an itch- 
ing, and a redness of the eyes, without swelling or flow 
of tears A 

state of dryness and of retraction of the ocular con- 
junctiva, observed especially after chronic conjuncti- 
vites; the ocular musoca turns dull, wrinkles around 
the cornea, becomes similar to the skin ; the. secretion 
of tears is suspended ; opacity of the cornea and atrophy 

206 



of the eyeball are the ordinary consequences of this 
disease, against which skill is powerless L 

xerose f. 

xerophthalmia L 

xerosis m. 

xerosis of the conjunctiva, xerophthalmia, xerophthal- 
mus, xerophthalmy ; a symptom which is characterised 
by dryness of the conjunctiva and which is due to deep 
cicatricial lesions of the eye (parenchymatous xerosis) 
or to modifications in the general condition (epithelial 
xerosis) M 
See also : bacille du xerosis 

xerosis cicatriciel m. 

cicatricial xerosis, which occurs in pemphigus of the eye 
when the surface of the conjunctival sac seems dry M 

xerosis epithelial m. 

epithelial xerosis, true xerosis of the conjunctiva, which 
is due to modifications in the general condition M 

xerosis parenchymateux m. 

parenchymatous xerosis, dryness of the conjunctiva due 
to deep cicatricial lesions of the eye M 

xerotique 

referable to xerosis : xerotic M 



yeux m. (Singular = oeil) 
eyes M 

in the plural, sometimes said figuratively and familiarly 
for spectacles A 
See also: avoir des yeux de chat 

avoir mal aux yeux 

avoir les yeux battus 

avoir les yeux en papillotes 

baisser les yeux 

bander les yeux 

bassiner les yeux 

cerne des yeux 

deviation conjuguee de la tete et des yeux 

deviation des yeux vers le bas 

deviation des yeux vers le haut 

ecarquiller les yeux 

essuyer ses yeux 

faire les yeux blancs 

fluxion sur les yeux 

se frotter les yeux 

207 



frotter ses yeux 
hydropisie des yeux 
tic d'elevation des yeux 

yeux a facettes m. 

eyes of certain insects, composed of small lenses HDT 

yeux a fleur de tete m. 

eyes level with the head, ones so prominent that they 
are almost level with the head HDT 

yeux abimes m. 

eyes that are incapacitated (by insomnia) HDT 

yeux au plafond m. 

anablepsia, abrupt upward deviation of the eyes [one 
of the complications and sequelae of epidemic ence- 
phalitis] B 

yeux bien fendus m. 

eyes that are long and well open HDT 

yeux creux m. 

deepset eyes, eyes buried very deep in the head A 

yeux de poupee m. 

doll's eye, the sign described by Cantelli in 1921 ; in 
moderate flexions of the head, if one tells the patient 
to look straight ahead for a distance and if at the same 
moment one flexes the head upon the chest, one no- 
tices that the patient's eyes have remained immobile 
and are still gazing at the horizon [one of the compli- 
cations and sequelae of epidemic encephalitis] TB 

yeux enfonces m. 

deepset eyes HDT 

yeux erailles m. 

ectropion ; eyes whose edge is everted HDT 

yeux fatigues m. 

eyes fatigued by prolonged exercise HDT 

yeux glauques m. 

eyes sea-green in colour HDT 

yeux injectes m. 

bloodshot eyes (eyes injected by an afflux of blood) 
HDT 

yeux perdus m. 

anablepsia, upward displacement — ordinarily abrupt— 
of both eyeballs [one of the complications and sequelae 
of epidemic encephalitis] RR2 

yeux reformes m. 

artificial eyes in which the enamel forms a double wall 
separated by a cavity containing air M 

yeux revulses en bas m. 

catablepsia, spasm of lowering of the eyes, downward 

208 



revulsion of the eyes [one of the complications and se- 
quelae of epidemic encephalitis] TB 

yeux ternes m. 

eyes which lack lustre HDT 

yeux vairons m. 

heterochromia iridis, difference in pigmentation of the 
iris M 



Zinn See : zone de Zinn 

zonule de Zinn 

zona ophtalmique m. 

zona ophthalmica, an eruption limited to the skin and 
to the organs innervated by the ophthalmic branch of 
the trigeminus nerve M 

zone choroidienne f. 

choroid zone, the posterior zone of the choroid ; it is 
more extended than the anterior zone and represents 
the choroid proper L 

zone ciliaire f. 

zona ciliaris, Zinn's zone, the anterior zone of the cho- 
roid; it contains the ciliary muscle and the corona 
ciliaris formed by the meeting of the ciliary processes L 

zone de Zinn f. 

Zinn's zone L 

zonulaire See : cataracte zonulaire 

zonule f. 

zonule, zonular fibres M 

zonule de Zinn f. 

Zinn's zonule, zonula ciliaris L 



209 



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